Week 2 Notes
Week 2 Notes Psych 1301
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marissa Reyes-Hernandez on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 1301 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Randolph Taylor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 117 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 09/08/15
In Class Notes Friday September 4 2 15 238 AM o The normal curve 0 A common distribution of data sets is a normal or bell curve 0 For example scores on the most commonly used intelligence test the Wechsler adult intelligence scale form the shape of the normal curve 0 Statistical Reasoning in Everyday Life Significant Differences 0 When is an observed difference reliable 0 Representative samples are better than biased samples 0 Lessvariable observations are more reliable than those that are more variable 0 More cases are better than fewer O Generalizations based on a few unrepresentative cases are unreliable 0 Different by chance or different for a reason 0 People are different from each other aka there is naturalchance variation whenever you collect data 0 Psychologists want to know if observed differences are due to this chance variation or if they are unlikely to be due to chance 0 When differences are unlikely to be due to chance we say they have statistical significance o In psychological research significance usually means that the probability of occurrence by chance are less than 5 percent 0 Neural and hormonal systems biology behavior and mind 0 Everything psychological every idea every mood every urge is biological o Psychologists working from a biological perspective study the links between biology and behavior 0 Humans are biopsychosocial and social cultural factors interact to influence behavior Understanding of relationship between the brain and mind has evolved over time Plato Mind located in spherical head Aristotle Mind found in heart Gall Phrenology idea that bumps on the skull indicated purpose of the brain area 0 Know the structure of a neuron 0 Action Potential 0 Neural impulse that travels down an axon like a wave 0 The synapse 0 Is a junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron synaptic gap 0 Neurotransmitter 0 Are chemicals used to send a signal across the synaptic gap 0 Reuptake 0 Recycling Neurotransmitters NTs 0 After NTs stimulate the receptors on the receiving neuron the chemical are taken back up into the sending neuron to be used again 0 Neuronal communication 0000 O Neurons receives signals from other neurons 0 Then threshold is reached action potential begins all or nothing response 0 Then travels down the axon terminal branches 0 Transmitted to another cell by releasing neurotransmitters across the synapse o How Neurotransmitters Activate Receptors 0 When the key fits the site is opened 0 Altering the process Agonist and Antagonist Molecules O Agonist o Mimics neurotransmitter O Antagonist 0 Blocks neurotransmitter o Neural and Hormonal Systems The Nervous System 0 Nervous system 0 Body39s speedy network consisting of all the nerve cells of the central and peripheral nervous systems 0 Central CNS 0 Brain and spinal cord are body39s decision maker 0 Peripheral PNS o Sensory and motor neurons connecting the central nervous systems to the rest of the body for gathering and transmitting information o The central Nervous System 0 Adult brain has about 86 billion neurons 0 Brain accounts for 2 percent of body weight 0 The PNS 0 Main parts 0 Somatic NS 0 Autonomic NS 0 Areas of the brain and their functions 0 The brainstem and cerebellum o Coordinates the body 0 The limbic border system 0 Manages emotions and connects thought the body 0 The cortex the outer covering 0 Integrates information o The brainstem and Thalamus O The brainstem including the medulla and pons is an extension of our spinal cord The thalamus is attached to its top The reticular formation passes through both structures 0 The medulla 0 Controls the most basic functions such as heartbeat the breathing o The Pons 0 Help coordinate simple automatic and unconscious movements 0 The Thalamus o The sensory switchboard or router 0 Also sends messages from the cortex to the medulla and cerebellum o Reticular netlike Formation o The nerve network of the brain o It enables alertness from a coma to wide awake o Cerebellum little Brain 0 Helps with coordination and nonverbal learning memory muscle memory 0 Limbic System 0 Emotions like fear or getting mad 0 Drives hunger and sex 0 Helps form episodic memories 0 The hippocampus o Processes memories 0 Works with amygdala to form emotionally charged memories 0 The Amygdala o Consists of two lima beans sized clusters 0 Helps process emotions especially fear and aggression o The hypothalamus o Lies below the thalamus o Helps with body temp makes sure we eat enough food and enough water involved in sex drive The cerebral cortex 0 Sensory and association areas 0 Two hemispheres 0 Each hemisphere has four lobes frontal parietal occipital temporal O Hemispheres connected by corpus callosum Function of the cortex 0 More complex animals have more cortical space devoted to integrating associating information Motor and sensory functions 0 Motor Cortex o Involved in sending information to body parts 0 Somatosensory Cortex o More cortical area devoted to more sensitive body part and parts requiring finer control 0 Ex more area for thumb than toes Brain Computer Interaction O A patient with a severed spinal cord has electrodes implanted in a parietal lobe region involved with planning to reach out one39s arm 0 The resulting signal can enable the patient to move a robotic limb Navigate a wheelchair etc More Sensory Function The occipital lobe deals with visual information Auditory information is sent to the temporal lobe Association Area Frontal Lobes O The frontal Lobes are active in 0 Executive functions such as judgement and planning 0 And inhibition of impulses Phineas Gage O Rail road worker 0 Metal pole shot thru his front part of his head frontal lobe 0 Personality changed Parietal Lobe Association Area O This part of the brain has many function in the association areas behind the sensory strip 0 Managing input from multiple senses 0 Performing spatial and mathematical reasoning 0 Monitoring the sensation of movement 0 Temporal Lobe Association Areas 0 Some abilities managed by association areas in this lobe o Plasticity the brain is flexible O The Brain generally does not repair damaged neurons But it can restore some function 0 It can form new connections reassign existing networks and insert new neurons some grown from stem cell 0 The corpus Callosum O This large band of neural fibers connects the two brain hemi O Responsible for sending information between hemi 0 Recall hemi are cross wired left controls right side 0 Thus corpus callosum allow for whole body coordination 0 Can be severed o Hemi operate independently
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