BioenergeticsMetabolism BIS 103
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This 28 page Class Notes was uploaded by Charity Daniel on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIS 103 at University of California - Davis taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see /class/187633/bis-103-university-of-california-davis in Biological Sciences at University of California - Davis.
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Date Created: 09/08/15
Midterm 2 Results 50759 70779 10719 30739 High 975 Low 16 Mean 58 Standard Deviation 163 Lecture 17 Amino Acid Metabolism Urea Cycle N and S assimilation Last cofactors THF and SAM Dietary Exogenous Proteins Hydrolyzed in digestive system 100 glday Replenish endogenous amino acids muscle protein Replenish glycogen stores glucogenic amino acids Excess intake for ATP production and lipid synthesis Excess nitrogen is excreted urea ammonia Nitrogen balance is typically zero Proteases Peptidases Dietary Protein I gt e g Trypsin Pepsin Blood Epatocvtes Cytosol Aminotransferases PLPdependenv Amino AcidX ocKGA ltgt ocKeto AcidX Glu A IIIIII From and To Mitochondria Hegatoc es From cytosol Glu Dehydrogenase Glu NAD H20 aKGA NADH Mitochondria Asp Aminotransferase Glu 0AA lt2gt aKGA m To cytosol Synthesis of Urea from Ammonia and Aspartate The Urea Cvcl e James Sumner 1926 Urease Sir Hans Krebs Urea Cycle 1932 TCA Cycle 1937 Detoxificgtion of gmmonig 1 GLU NAD H20 gt ocKGA NADH H NH3 2 NH3 HCO3 2ATP 2 2ADP HPO4339 O3POC NH2 CarbamoylP p 88 2 3 O3POCNH2 HPOR NHZ 9H2 Ornithine 9H2 9H2 H 9 COO39 UREA NH3 1 H20 6 H2N H2 H2NCNH2 39300 I HC NH Fumarate 9H2 W A rglnlne 9H2 COO 9H2 H g coo 5 NH3 The Urea C cle W2 100 llH 9H2 Citrulline H2 W H g COO39 NH3 ATP Aspartate 4 AMPPM llH2 00 Hl C NHCH 9H2 CH2 9H2 Izoo 9H2 Arginino H 9 COO succinate NH3 p 88 Carbamoyiap Syntheiase HCO339 2ATP CarbamoyIP 2ADP Pi CarbamoylP Ornithine Urea Cycle 3AA Malate Fumarate O Mitochondria and Cytosol CSkeletons V ocKGA Y GIu Dehydrogenase Asp Aminotransferase UCD Urea Cycle Disorders wwwureacyclecom Urea Cvcle Net Reaction A TP Requirement NH3 HCO339 Asp 3ATP 9 Urea Fumarate 2ADP AMP 4Pi 4 Pbonds cleaved 4 ATP But NADH Generation Gu NADH20 ocKGA NADH NH3 9 6 ATP ETC Malate NAD 9 OAA NADH Net Gain of 2ATPIUrea Endogenous Proteins A Normal Protein Turnover 50200 qday Digestive enzymes pancreas gt30 glday Plasma proteins Cell death eg intestinal mucosa immune system Intracellular turnover damaged proteins enzyme regulation B Mobilization of Skeletal Muscle Protein Fasting exercise trauma injury Gluconeogenesis Malnutrition diets deficient in essential amino acids Death by Veganism milk and second classquot from By Nina Planck plants but today this is considered denigratiue m vegetarians HEN mm 5 The laet remains Lhnugh that kur died 0 h valinn39 he was 6 contain a E Sl ll siV EC in aci S gfggdm 3 needed lur lilei the right rati This is net true nl plant proteins which are inlerier in quantity and quality e es n pounds liis veg an parents who led him mainly say mquot 5 quot quot 3quot W 9 We 9 mm A vegan diet may lack vitamin BIZ found only in aninn nods usahle vi s A and D lcunti in meat sh a ity at least a d h an wn MESS VII1m m retarded damage vegan pregnancy was irresponsible Why babies can t live ori vegetables alone39 risk Studies shdw tha vegan hrS at l 835 milk c docusahexaenal acid or DHA the omega3 tat uun Yul cannot create and nourish a rt any lien it is dittleu t nverstate brsllbahy merely on leads from the importance nl DH as it is p an s i re no su a tieient quantities a t sale stitutes tor a quality iniant lnrmui yet even a breastted baby i l n A vital for eye and tirain deve npm A vegan diet is equal an lur weaned bable and toddlers who n plenty at protein an en vegans turn a o lndrgennus cuisine annut what humans it rv ahsnrptiun of pmleln and min m pagan That39s why health nllicials n B veg Canada and other countries express mammal mm cautinn abmn say 1 a tea Frcizin dellciency is dne dan an diet lnr babies speak at proteins as quotInst lnmems atourma e quotmquot quot 9 quot 539 Eggs d eir rnnthers ate New y ur ne Nina plume is the nether or Real 2 Find what in gal and Why quot E I can Tme g rgjx i ym39 inure 39m n than lashion 39rhpugh 1 s quotD Dollucally correct to say so all xamlnes the war ngs s a at quotand I 0 market and discuv ers on beauty in the charts nyllmesrcomopinion laln the conversation Readers ear mm cm m cm senfi culummsssthelrcommem iish nil children ied nnly plants will nyumescamlimesdeL tint get the precious things they need i to live and grew ll Intracellular Proteolysis Skeletal Muscle gt Amino Acids Aminotransferases Amino AcidX ocKGA ocKeto AcidX Glu Ala Aminotransferase Lem Pyr ocKGA IIIII Intracellular Proteolysis Skeletal Muscle gt Amino Acids Aminotransferases Amino AcidX ocKGA ocKeto AcidX Glu Glu Dehydrogenase EgtGluNAD H20 aKGA NADH NH3 Glutamine Synthetase E NH3GIu ATP ADP Pi O O 0 9 Ala Aminotransferase ocKGA Glu Pyr gt NH3 or Asp Glutaminase gt H20 Glu NH3 Glutaminase H20 Glu Muscles other extrghepgtic orqans I I BLOOD El In conditions of metabolic acidosis gt The Cori and Alanine Cvcle Glycogen lt Glucose gtPyruvate Proteins Lactate Alanine 4 l Muscle I I I I I Blood I I I I l l Liver I V V I Lactate Alanlne I l Glycogen 4 Glucoselt Pyruvate Urea p 89 Degradation of Amino Acids Fate of CSkeletons Glucogenic Amino Acids Cskeletons are converted to Pyruvate aKetoglutarate SuccinylCoA Fumarate Oxaloacetate 0AA Ketogenic Amino Acids Cskeletons are converted to AcetylCoA Acetoacetate p 90 Glucogenic Lipids o Ketone Bodies Isocitrate Amino Acids Common Deqra ition Product Onlz glucogenic Ala Cys Gly Ser Thr Pyruvate Asp Asn 0AA Met Thr humans Val SuccinylCoA Arg Glu Gln His Pro aKetoglutarate Onlz ketogenic Leu Lys Acetoacetate Ketoqenic and qlucoqenic Phe Tyr Fumarate Acetoacetate Trp Pyruvate AcetylCoA lle SuccinylCoA AcetylCoA p 90 Nitrogen and Sulfur Assimilation Amino Acid Synthesis Nitroqen gnd Sulfur Assimilgtion Amino Acid Biosvnthesis C02 N03 N2 Carbohydrates Amino Acids Light 602 7 Reactions gt Fixation p 91 Bioeinergetics of Macronutri39ent Assimilation Electronegativity o 34 N 30 s 26 c 26 H 22 P 21 No 30 CO2 Assimilation NADPH NADPH ATP NADPH ATP Photosynthesis NH3 st CHO H2 Nitrate Assimiliation and Nitroqen Fixation A Most Microorganisms Fungi and Plants Nitrate Reductase NO339 NADH H gt N0239 NAD H20 Nitrite Reductase NOZ39 6 Felred 8 H gt NH4 2 H20 6 Fdox B Biological Nitrogen Fixation Microorganisms Nitrogenase N2 8e3910H 16 ATP 16 H20 2 NH3 16 ADP 16 Pi H2 p 91 Assimilation of Ammonia Major Pathway for Ammonia Net Assimilation MO Fungi Plants Glutamine Sznthetase GS NH3 Glu ATP Gln ADP Pi Glutamate Sznthase Gln ocKGA NADPH H ZGlu NADP Glutamate Aminotransferase also present in animals Glu aKeto Acid 4 xKGA LocAmino Acid Glutamine Amidotransferase also present in animals Gln ROH or R1COR2 Glu RNH2 or R1CNHR2 p 92 Sulfur Assimilgtion Adenine 0 i 2 II 804 OISIO FquotO O O O carrierSSO339 H OH OH Adenosine monophosphate sulfate APS carrier AMP 6 Reduced Ferredoxin 6 Oxidized Ferredoxin J 2Fdred 2Fdox 4 HS CHz CH C OH carrier39s539 NH2 Cysteine Acetate I Hsc O CHz CliH C OH O NH2 Oacetyl serine p Sulfur Assimilgtion H3C C O CH2CIZH C OH 0 NH2 Oacetyl serine T 0 OPi CH2aCIZ C OH OH 3Phosphoglycerate 3PGA CoA NAD Acetyl CoA OH CHZCH C OH NADH H I OPi CHg CIZH C OH 0 OPi CH2 C OH O NH2 NH2 H20 Pi Glu HydroxyPpyruvate Ophosphoserine Serine
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