Bio Of Paras
Bio Of Paras ENT 156
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This 31 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emerald Funk on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ENT 156 at University of California - Davis taught by Robert Kimsey in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see /class/187642/ent-156-university-of-california-davis in Entomology at University of California - Davis.
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Date Created: 09/08/15
Entomology 156 Biology Of Parasites The Arthropod Parasites RB Kimsey Arachnids The Mites l Mites orAcan Introduction quot A dee spread common diverse largely unknown fauna Morphology C Generalized life histories ofthe parasitic forms 1 Life cycle h b as 6 stages idealized some may be a nt se a Eggs hatch into prelarva 1 May be brooded by female 2 Occasionallyviviparous b Prelarva quiescent nonfeeding primitive form 1 Life cycle has 6 stages idealized some may be absent c Larva 1 Six legs reduced characteristics of the adult 2 Non feeding predator or parasite 1 Life cycle has 6 stages idealized some may be absent d Three nymphal stages usually all feed similarly 1 Protonymph Acquires 4 pair of legs d Three nymphal stages usually all feed similarly 2 Deutronymph acquires all non sexual characteristics of the adult 3 Tritonymph rare stage only in particular groups e Adult sexual stage C Generalized life histories ofthe parasitic forms 2 Levels of association with the host a Freeliving parasites 1 Most life stages free living feed on plant material 2 Obligate parasites of vertebrates in particular developmental stage usually larva quot 3 Example the Trombiculidae chigger mites 2 Levels of association with the host b Ectoparasitic on skin or in vestment 1 All stages obligate parasites of vertebrates 2 Associated with the nest or live on host 3 Example Laelaptidae and related families 2 Levels ofassociation with the host c Within the surface ofthe skin 1 All stages obligate parasites of enebrates 2 Live only within the super cial layers of 8 s In Responsible for numerous forms of mange and scabies 2 Levels of association with the host c Within the surface ofthe skin 4 Examples a Demodicidae the hair follicle mites b Sarcoptidae Sarcopties scabei the i Trombiculidae the chigger mites A Characteristics 100s of species world i e istribution in tropics B Life cycle 1 Egg larva nymph adult 2 Larvae active on vegetation 05 1mm yellow B Life cycle 2 Larvae active on vegetation Feed by piercing skin injecting saliva Formation ofa stylsome feeding tube Feed for1 day to 1 month Rarely feed on blood mostly matrix componen now 339 B Life cycle 3 Nymphs and adults live in soil rarely seen feed on small arthropods C East Asian vectors of Scrub typhus or Tsutsugamushi fever Rickettsia tsutsugamushi D Vicious biters in southern United states Laelaptidae A Numerous species all ectoparasites of brates 1 Host speci c but will bile other hosts when preferred host is absent 2 1mm oval white or red or brown when e Laelaptidae B Life history egg larva two nymphs adult Egg hatches larva does not feed 2 Molts to protonymph requires blood meal Molts to deutronymph which may or may not feed Adult takes multiple blood meals and long lived 5quot P Laelaptidae C Found on hosts or in nests sometimes in enormous numbers airfollicle mites modex follicu orum A Probably at least 1 species per warm blooded vertebrate B Characteristics elongate 02505 m long stumpy e 5 IV Demodicidae the h De I wl 5 um l il Mil l ill ll liii l l l I ll illl Reside in hairf glands n 2 Most every human infected eye lashes oil glands along nose B Characteristics 1 ollicles and sebaceous t I B Characteristics 3 Life history poorly known 4 Demodectic mange V Sarcoptidae Sarcopties scabiei the bies m39 A Minute burrowing mites in the skin of humans and domestic animals B Characteristics attened discshaped microns ong t A 399er LT 3 suckers on appendages white 150250 7 V Sarcoptidae Sarcopties scabiei the bies mites C Life history 1 Female enters skin burrows 23 mm at night a super cial not below the stratum comeum b Thin wrinkled skin preferred c Lays 2530 large eggs 150 micron along burrow s 0 Life history 2 Larva hatch and feed in burrow 3 Two nym phal stages extend their own s burrow 0 Life history 4 Adult female waits for nomadic male 5 Two three week life cycle Tyroglyphidae Grocers itch mites Free living delrilivores Pzemotes the Straw itch mite Free living predator Trombiculida e chigger mites Free living parasites Macronyssidae and Dermanyssidae Nest and ecloparasiles Entomology 156 Biology Of Parasites The Crustacea and the Pentastomida Introduction to Crustacea A Diverse parasitic groups incl barnacles crabs CD Diverse adaptations to parasitic life 1 Bizarre morphological forms 2 Complex life histories C Significant economic affects D Higher taxa in complete state of flux Parasitic Copepoda A Introduction 1 Groups incl 4 Orders 20 families 10000 species 2 Hosts a External parasites commonly of fish amphibians b Internal parasites of invertebrates including anemones nudibranchs holothurians starfish sea urchins corals polychetes A Introduction 3 Invertebrate hosts of helminth parasites of vertebrates A Introduction 4 Morphology is bizarre esp Lernaeocerids a Reduction in appendages b Adaptations for adhesion c Increase in size and proportion due to genitals Fusion of somites loss of segmentation Loss of sense organs 9 m f Loss offree living instars B Example Family Lernaeopodidae Salmincola californiensis 1 Common widespread ectoparasites of fish 2 Morphology highly modified a Adults no sign of segmentation b Females permanently on host skin 1 Possess anchor or bulla 2 Specialized jaws or maxillipeds for grasping 3 No abdomen or legs 4 Tiny males are free living 3 Biology and lt I T 9 i i r life history 8 V J 2332 days H0 ms v r Z wrrrcnanmusiviv i 1 a mom 72 hrs C H 00 hrs X 5 new 7 f 24 hrs 45 ms g f Chillmus n 39 um 39 a x 3 Biology and life history a Egg hatches and napulius molts immediately to a copepodid Must find host in 24 hrs Grabs host with hooks on antennae and maxillae 0039 Q Attaches frontal filament to structure under skin 3 Biology and life history e Molts to first chalmus stage 1 Detach molt reattach 2 Four chalmus stages 3 Finally detaches f Female locates permanent attachment everts bulla g Free living male locates and fertilizes female lll Subclass Branchiura The sh lice A Introduction 1 Few species ectoparasites of fishes a Swim well leave and return to host b Eggs laid on aquatic substrates l Morphology a Recognizable as a crustacean b Flattened dorsoventrally c Large sucking disks under carapace modified maxillae d Preoral spine questionable function 2 Morphology B Biology and life history Argulus spp 1 Metamorphosis simple or direct 2 No larval stagesjuveniles 3 Sexes different at hatching 4 Suckers develop from primitive maxillules IV Subclass Cirripeda the parasitic barnacles A Introduction 1 Order Rhizocephala 2 genera example Sacculina 2 Internal parasites of crabs and other Crustacea IV Subclass Cirripeda the parasitic barnacles 3 Adult rootlike morphology a Completely ramifies internal organs and spaces b No gut or appendage c Nutrient uptake by root like processes B Biology and life history 1 Napulius hatches from egg a Molts fourtimes b No mouth orgut nonfeeding stage B Biology and life history 2 Molts to cypris a Attaches to crap host b Sheds appendages muscles with molt B Biology and life history 3 Becomes kentrogon hypodermic a lnjects mass of cells b Migrate to host intestine attaches B Biology and life history 4 Matures to rhizocephalan a Grows into central mass with ramifying adsorptive processes FT Gonads develop break through weakened cutic e c Free living cypris males 5 Controversy regarding sexuality and mating C Host pathology Parasitic castration I Changes in secondary sexual characteristics male to female 9 Liver connective tissue and thoracic ganglion damage S Subclass Pentastomida the tongue worms A Introduction worm like parasites of the lungs of predatory vertebrates 1 Hosts a uun eneulaie 1 Respiratory system of reptiles amphibians esp snakes 2 Air sacks of sea birds 3 Nasopharynx of canines and felines 2 Evolution and phylogeny a Numerous hypothetical af liations mites artigra es etc b Wingstand crustacean similar spermatozoa c Riley crustacean embryogenesis gametogenesis d Able 1989 de nitely marine Crustacea based on shared derived characters in 16s ribosomal RNA sequence e Traditionally considered discrete phylum f Speculation on very ancient origins 3 Morphology a Segmented body with annuli b Body regions forebody and hindbody d 3 Morphology d Thin cuticle sometimes with spines e Simple digestive tract open mouth f Dimorphic males smaller B Biology and life history perpetuates in predator prey inte 39 1 Adults feed on predatorhost uid and blood 2 Eggs laid swallowed and defecated a Viscid cling together b Withstand desiccation B Biology and life history perpetuates in predator prey interaction 3 Larvae hatch when feces ingested by prey animal a Massive infections of small rodents b Penetrates intestine migrates anywhere c Oval four short legs penetration organ 4 Molts to quiescent nymph 3 Released when the host ingested by predator b Penetrates intestine migrates to lungs matures mud 4 Molts to quiescent nymph 5 Examples 3 Porocephalius crotali in snakerodent prey cycle b Linguatula serriata in predator livestock ungulate cycle 1 Adults in nasopharynx of cats d gsfoxesetal 2L ENT 156 Topic 7 Dracunculiasis amp Enterobiasis Dracunculiasis 392 inundation MEE h the truth I n us lul mlding lIn wurld39s Innsl wallaagener sum The Foundation Who Speak for the GuineaWorms A van read this Lure nu nuuy An been killed the earth s blodwerslty Will have beeri lrrevocably harmed Unllke elephants tigers and other chensmatlc megefaune the Gulnea Worm has few advocates Whlle mare phntegemc SPECIES bene tfram wurldwme attention and seemingly luau Humqu slmggles 39 suppu so nealm expens wha have little or no awareness ufthe damage they pose to worldwrde biodiversity lmniralh cycle The species39 very survival depends on us and Mn m r qua non Dracunculiasis Secernentea SpiruridaDracunculoidea Dracunculus medinensis one of 2 species described from mammals Can infect dogs cats and non human primates Possibly horses cattle others 0 Focus of a global eradication effort Strongwa 5 Nematode 3 age Phylogeny According to SSU rDNA Based on Blaxter et a1 1998 Figure Dorris et a1 1999 U mtg 0 L1 IO Dorylaimida f Mermithida we Trichocephalida Ag Mononchida 3 A x I Brpiogasteuda 0 egg s Strongyloididae Ag Steinemematidae Panagrolaimidae 1 Cephalobidae if Aphelenchida egg 11 Tylenchida if Oxyurida 5 t Spirurida Ag Ascaridida Ag Rhigonematida 3 Chromadorida 1 Enoplida If Triplonchida 3 Trophic ecology is Bacterivore 0i Slaggtgommvore 141 Fungivore f Phytoparasite Entomopathogen a 12 Invertebrate parasite mg Vertebrate parasite Dracunculiasis Only nematode transmitted exclusively through the drinking of water Female worms emerge from skin Ancient human scourge in areas With limited drinking water Symbols of medicine Woodcut by Velschius 1674 died w 14 m Biblical reference to Guinea worm And the Lord sent fiery serpents among the people and they bit the people and much people of Israel Numbers 214 8 Human dam unmlered Wale ounlainlng wpapo s wlm L3 larvae Larvae undergoes m malls m the compo and Moms 3 L3 larvaee Larvae ale veleased when waspods dle Larvae penetrate the quot051 s 510mm and Was II tlrlal wa may mature and leprudnca L1 larvae Cansumed by a capepoa F ale warm H In emerge lmm am one year ans lnlecluan Fecalzed lomale worm mtglates l0 su aca 01 5km causes a blistar and discharges larvae Ll larvae released inln water 7 V from the emargmg ramala worm A Inlemwestaue A Diagnaallc Stage Course of Infection Prepatent period 1 year to emergence of female worm 100 cm long Reach adulthood in thoracic and abdominal muscles of mammals Females fertilized by 35 months Post Infection males die between 3 amp 7 months PI Females migrate to extremities 8 12 months PI Course of Infection cont 0 Worm emerges from feet in gt90 of cases Itchy red papule bump forms first Immediate pre emergence symptoms Nausea vomiting rash diarrhea dizziness swelling Nematode produces toxin induces blister Post emergence complications 2ndary bacterial infections including tetanus Debilitation Painful to walk if on foot Course of Infection cont 8 Treatment of Infection 0 No effective drug treatment some anti in ammatory drugs may ease removal 0 More advanced surgery possible if worm accessible 0 Classical worm on a stick method still practiced by indigenous people Morbidity and Mortality 0 1 fatal due to secondary infections gangrene tetanus 0 Disability of 3 10 weeks in 50 of cases 0 Nigeria responsible for 25 of the absenteeism in school children 0 Uncompleted migration can lead to joint problems if worms calcify 0 Allergic reactions common Range from itching amp hives to anaphylaXis 0 Much scarring of skin and underlying tissues Traditional Treatment Traditional nail amp clay lances Geographic Distribution of Dracunculiasis Cases DISTRIBUTION OF 70165 CASES OF DRACUNCULIASIS REPORTED IN 2000 Nigeria 11 Ghana 9 Others 7 Sudan 73 Eradication efforts complicated by civil war lncomplete reporQ Guinea Worm Reported Cases Reported cases of guinea worm worldwide 19904000 700000 500000 500000 D 5m I other Countries 400000 r 300000 2000000 100000 1900 1991 1992 1005 1394 1905 1996 1007 1903 1900 2000 Scurce39 WHO Weeldy Epidsmolngica Record1 May 2001 Countries With a Recent History of gin 1quot Dracunculiasis and Current 2000 LUIRIHEFBSD wss C 5 2 Uganda Central Amcan Rep Recent history a In green Sunan 5430 Camemun Variations on Themes of Guinea Worms Selfsurgery not recommended Dracunculiasis controleradication Prevent human entry into drinking water sources Don t use step wells ponds Kill copepods in water Abate 1 ppm 7 An organophosphate insecticide used for mosquitoes 7 Abate doesn t kill mammals or fish Abate donated by American Cyanamid 7 Abate may affect amphibian growth rates but how 0 Filter drinking water through nylon mesh 7 Dupont donated nylon mesh to control programs UNICEF amp Water Filtration Woman filtering drinking water The Carter Center amp Guinea Worm President Carter Travels to Khartoum to Push Guinea Worm Disease Eradication E orts The carter Center Atlanta PRESS REL SE Email This Page February 25 2002 Pusth to the web February 25 2002 LINWS Page Atlanta Former US PresidentJimmy Carter and his wife Rdsalynn will participate in the International Conference on the Eradication of Gumea Worm Disease in a cum u an he meeting which brings together the leaders of the Gliinea worm disease eradication el39rdrtfrom countries throughout Africa is co7spunsore y he Government of Sudan The Carter Center World Health Organization and UNICEF Through an international coalition 98 percent of all Guinea worm cases have been eliminated but serious challenges remain said President Carter Enterobiasis Pinworms The most common human nematode in temperate climates Pinworm eggs Pinworm adult N10712 mm long Pinwormsquot Probably infects virtually as American as all children before age 12 apple pie revalence in children Washington DC survey 1241 Average prevalence N20 in US children Sweden 7 21 of children surveyed Human pinworm I Secernentea Oxyurida Enterobius vermicularis Enter0bius gregarii I Humans only known host I Worms migrate through intestinal tract with preference for large intestine as adults I Direct life cycle without extraintestinal phase I Nemas feed on bacteria Nematode Phylogeny According to SSU rDNA 7 Strongyloididae Ag Steinemematidae 397 Panagrolaimidae 1 392 Cephalobidae is Aphelenchida 9 f 7 3 Tylenchida f Oxyurida 5 Spirurida 5 Ascaridida Ag Rhigonematida Based on Blaxter et al 1998 Figure Dorris et al 1999 Chromadorida 521 s Enoplida If Triplonchida ff Trophic ecology 5 Bacterivore Al ivoreomnivore 6 prgdator 14 Fungivore f Phytoparasite a Dorylaimida f Mermithida e Trichocephalida g Entomopathogen 7 Mononchrda 13 Invertebrate parasite a Vertebrate parasite x 35 e i 2 w L U r gen Pinworm Life History 0 Males die after copulation females die after egg laying 4500 16000 eggsfemale 0 Mating takes place in ileum females migrate to the lower bowel 0 Females typically migrate onto the perianal skin to lay eggs at night die after egg laying 0 Eggs develop to infectivity Within 6 hours by maturing to J 1 stage 0 Retro infection alternative larval hatching re entry Enterobius development Pinworms passed from child Pinworm Life History cont 0 Eggs short lived and are killed by drying lt10 survive 2 days Prepatent period 4 6 weeks 0 Most infections Via ingestion possibility of retroinfection 0r inhalation of eggs Eggs resistant to disinfectants but killed by drying or extreme heat clothes dryer Symptoms of Enterobiasis Many infections 23 asymptomatic Perianal itching due to eggs and female worms 0 Secondary bacterial infections due to excoriation of skin by children Restlessness disturbed sleep irritability Anorexia When intensity high Rare Enterobius Pathology Pinworm egg peritoneal granuloma Pinworm eggs found on PAP Complications of Enterobiasis 0 Inflammation of appendix rare mucosal invasion with appendicitis 0 Invasion of female genital tract abnormal PAP and granulomas in peritoneum Diagnosis of Enterobiasis In children adult worms may be observed On perianal skin at night Sometimes upon bathing children 0 Few eggs in feces fecal exams not productive 5 of positive cases show positive fecals Scotch tape test method of choice Best if done on 3 consecutive days Pinworm egg as viewed through Scotch tape Via microscope Treatment of Enterobiasis Test entire family treat all infected with Albendazole or Pyrantel pamoate 1 dose are drugs of choice but other anthelminthics may also be used 0 Best to treat twice 14 days apart because larvae are not killed by these drugs Hygienewashing of contaminated clothes bedding Pinworm neurosis 11
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