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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Natasha on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 202 at St. Cloud State University taught by Schoenfuss, Heiko in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at St. Cloud State University.
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Date Created: 09/08/15
Biol 202 Notes Tuesday September 8 2015 Exam 1 is on Thursday 91015 It covers chapters 3 4 and 5 It will contain 50 multiplechoice questions You will get 60 minutes to complete it Bring your student ID to class with you You must turn in the question sheet and the scantron sheet in order to receive a grade for the exam Tissues Connective tissue characteristics 0 Connective tissue can be well vascularized lots of blood 0 It can also be avascular no blood The connective tissue forms the extracellular matrix 1 One element of the extracellular matrix is the ground substance a Contains water with proteins and polysaccharide molecules 2 Fibers which are produced by cells a Collagen fibers b Elastic fibers c Reticular fibers Connective Tissue Types 0 Bone osseous tissue 0 Living tissue 0 Lacunae 0 Protect and support the body 0 Do not stain well 0 Hyaline cartilage 0 Most common cartilage O Rubbery like rubber in mechanical devices absorbs shock 0 Elastic cartilage O Elasticity to it 0 Found in ear and voice apparatus 0 Fibrocartilage 0 Very compressible 0 Found in knee and elbow joints 0 Dense connective tissue 0 Collagen fibers and fibroblasts O Tendonmuscle to bone O Ligamentsbone to bone 0 Like a rope strength in one direction 0 Areolar connective tissue 0 Also known as loose tissue 0 Soft and pliable 0 Contains all fibers not organized or dense O Absorb a lot of water legs hurt at end of dayabsorb more water 0 Adipose tissue 0 Important because it keeps us warm 0 Protects organs in the body bubble wrap when you mail a package 0 Fuel storage 0 Reticular connective tissue 0 Interwoven fibers 0 Found in lymph noes spleen and bone marrow O Fibers stained with dark dye easy to identify in lab 0 Blood 0 Surrounds the uid matrix 0 Can see the fibers during clotting 0 Moves nutrients and wastes around the body Erythrocytes RBCs are the most common Leukocytes 0 Monocyte 0 Lymphocyte 0 Eosinophil 0 Neutrophil 0 Basophil Tissue repair 0 Regenerate natural turn over 0 Fibrosis scar tissue which is less exible The type of tissue can be damaged depending on how severe the injury was When an area in your body is hurt your body sends WBCs to the area They leak into the area and clot it They wall off the injured area so nothing can infect it like a Band Aid Then the granulation tissue form and the surface epithelium forms 0 Epithelial tissue and fibrous connective tissue and bone regenerate easily because they have a good and immediate blood supply 0 Skeletal muscle regenerates poorly since it does not get good blood supply 0 Cardiac muscle nervous tissue in the brain and spinal cord are usually replaced largely with scar tissue This is a problem in the heart because scar tissue doesn t contract 0 Cartilage and dense connective tissue take a long time to regenerate Integument and Glands Epithelial membranes 0 Cutaneous membrane 0 Dry membrane 0 Protective O Superficial epidermis is dead and filled with keratin O Underlying dermis is connective tissue 0 Mucous membrane 0 Lines all the body cavities that are open to the exterior of the body 0 Many types of different surface epithelium depending on the site 0 Serous membrane 0 Simple squamous epithelium Lines the body cavities that are closed to the exterior of the body Secretes uid to reduce friction and prevent in ammation Peritoneum abdominal cavity Pleura surrounds the lungs Pericardium surrounds the heart OOOOO Connective tissue membrane 0 Synovial membrane 0 Contains connective tissue only 0 In knee joints not a place where epithelium can survive Integumentary system 0 Skin covers a huge surface area 0 Contains 0 Sweat glands 0 Oil glands scalp gets oily from hair 0 Hairs we have few hairs compared to animals 0 Nails The difference in thin skin and thick skin is how thick the stratum corneum is Stratum corneum Stratum lacidum Stratum granulosum Stratum spinosum Stratum vasalegerminativum Melanin is a pigment produced by melanocytes It can be genetic or how much time you spend in the sun Melanocytes are fingerlike extensions Two layers in the epidermis l Papillary layer a Pain receptors b Curvy look c Nerve endings 2 Reticular layer a Blood vessels b Glands c Nerve receptors Hair Produced by a hair bulb Made of hard keratinized epithelial cells Blond you have few melanocytes Dark hair you have many melanocytes Hair follicle The dermal and epidermal sheath surrounds the hair root Arrector pilli causes goose bumps on us and hair to stand up straight in a dog Nails They are colorless because they lack melanocytes The stratum basale extends beneath the nail bed Which is responsible for growth Glands All glandular tissues come from an epithelial tissue type Glandular secretions come from processes inside the cell Glands are extremely diverse in form and function Exocrine glands the epithelial surface Endocrine glands into the blood stream Paracrine glands the interstitial space Secretion It starts out inside the cell as stated by the cell theory Look over the cellular mechanisms of grandular secretion Sebaceous glands 0 Produce oils that lubricate skin and kill bacteria 0 Glands are activated at puberty Sweat glands 0 Eccrinie 0 Open from a duct and go onto the skins surface 0 Apocrine 0 Empty into hair follicles Sweat 0 Mostly water 0 Some metabolic waste 0 In apocrine it contains fatty acids and proteins 0 Helps body cool down 0 Gets rid of waste products 0 Acidic in nature to inhibit bacterial growth Skin homeostatic imbalances 0 Exposures latex gloves causes allergic reactions 0 Impetigo caused by bacterial infection 0 Psoriasis trauma infection stress trigger it 0 Burns 0 Tissue damage caused by heat electricity UV radiation chemicals 0 Dangers are dehydration electrolyte imbalance circulatory shock 0 Body sections are about 9 arms legs head torso 0 First degree burns only epidermis is damaged 0 Second degree burns epidermis and upper dermis is damaged 0 Third degree burns destroys the entire layer of skin 0 Skin graft since the hair is completely burned away 0 If over 25 has second degree burns or 10 has third degree burns it is considered critical Cancer 0 Abnormal mass of cells 0 Benign does not spread 0 Malignant move to other parts of the body 0 Skin cancer is the most common type 0 Basal cell carcinoma 0 Squamous cell carcinoma 0 Malignant melanoma Use sunscreen When you go outside
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