Environ Remote Sensing
Environ Remote Sensing ERS 186
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Dan Skiles IV
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Dan Skiles IV
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This 27 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dan Skiles IV on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ERS 186 at University of California - Davis taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see /class/187674/ers-186-university-of-california-davis in Environmental Resource Science at University of California - Davis.
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Date Created: 09/08/15
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of energy 5 Tmnsmittance process by which mdiation passes through amaterial EnergylVIatter Interactions Radiation Budget Equation C3 53 i re ected transmitted absorbed Where aquot total ux incident on surface Energy is conserved EnergyMatter Interactions Radiant ux W measured in Watts or Js To re ected io Hemisphencal re ectance Hemisphencal o transmitted transmittance 33 i Hemisphencal m s absorptanCe J o absorbed Whae w total ux incident on surface EnergyMatter Interactions Irradiance E i A ll EXitance M i A A Radiant Flux Density amount of radiant ux W divide by the ar a ofthe surface it is incident upon irradiance or is leaving exitance WmZ EnergyMatter Interactions Radiance radiant ux per unit solid angle in a given direction per unit of proj ected source area in that direction hemsphae 27lcrrcle EnergyMatter Interactions Projected Source Area A AcosCI Solid angle A qz measured in steradians sr EnergyMatter Interactions Radiance radiant ux per unit solid angle in a given direction per unit of projected source area in that direction 4 MNHLMVHH 420 7 v A EnergyMatter Interactions re ectance The Remote Sensing Problem Where does all the energy come from Stefan Boltzmann law 4 M 39T Where 5 6697 x10398 Wrn39Z K4 T temp in Kelvin Wien s displacement law Omax ldT Where k is a constant 2898 Om K The Remote Sensing Problem r m y WWW my Elackbady ra man curves The Remote Sensing Problem LL Absurpnun The Remote Sensing Problem The Remote Sensing Problem 5 cattenng U U The Remote Sensing Problem Particle Properties of Light The photelectric effect Monochromatic light Metal plate A electry Variable voltage collector ammeter Particle Properties of Light Photoelectric effect summary Photo electrons are detected whenever metal is illuminated by light of a frequency V which is greater than a critical or threshold frequency irrespective of the intensity of the light This is in direct con ict with predictions based on the wave picture of light If light is a classical wave the electrons should absorb energy continuously and at any intensity it should be just a matter of time until an electron has suf cient energy to escape Thus there should be no threshold frequency Particle Properties of Light Einstein s Explanations Photoelectric effect could be explained if one assumed that the energy carried by the incoming light came in discrete amounts Furthermore he suggested that amount of energy in each light quantum or photon depends only on the frequency V of the light and not on the intensity The intensity of a beam of light is determined by the number of photons present the energy of each photon is determined by the frequency Particle Properties of Light Energy of a photon is QhV Where h is Planck s constant 6625 X 10 34 Is A hchV Ahc Q Note energy is inversely related to wavelength Particle Properties of Light More evidence for the particle model AH Compton photon r 39 Monochromatic light Xray I u electron electron Photon incident on a stationary electron is scattered The energy and momentum lost by the photon are taken up by the electron Billiard Ball analogy total momentum of the photon and electron is conserved WaveParticle Duality How can light be both a particle and a wave We can reconcile these two ideas by Viewing the photon as a small wave bundle with energy hV The energy of the bundle is determined by its frequency The photon is a wave disturbance localized in a small region of space much like a particle Many photons at a single frequency behave similar to a continuous wave when they refract disperse re ect etc JimV AAA JimV JimV 0 UV UVV W W WaveParticle Duality luminous beings are we not this crude matter EnergyMatter Interactions The Bohr Atom EnergyMatter Interactionsatomic emission mummmmmmmm 39 i E E Ee Discrete emission Ahc Q Continuous emission EnergyMatter Interactions lRefraction bending of light through mediums of different density Been there done that 2 Re ectance is process whereby radiation bounces off an object 3 Scattering re ectance in an unpredictable manner 4 Absorption process by which radiation is absorbed and converted to other forms of energy 5 Transmittance process by which radiation passes through a material EnergyMatter Interactions Radiation Budget Equation Dil Dre ected Dtransmitted Dabsorbed Where PM total ux incident on surface Energy is conserved EnergyMatter Interactions Radiant ux 1 measured in watts 0r Js Hemispherical re ectance Hemispherical transmittance Hemispherical ab sorptance fl Dre ected DR 739 AltIgt ltIgta transmitted a A Dabsorbed DR YATACKA1 Where PM total ux incident on surface EnergyMatter Interactions Irradiance EA DM A A EXitance MA DM A A Radiant Flux Density amount of radiant ux 1 diVided by the area of the surface it is incident upon irradiance or is leaving exitance Wm2 EnergyMatter Interactions Radiance radiant ux per unit solid angle in a given direction per unit of proj ected source area in that direction hemsp hare name EnergyMatter Interactions Projected Source Area A A0059 Solid angle 0 A q2 measured in steradians sr EnergyMatter Interactions Radiance radiant ux per unit solid angle in a given direction per unit of projected source area in that direction Concept of Radiance Normle lo surface Radium lux 1 Side View of source l39ctL A Solid unglc 2 l rojcclcd source ureu A mg l I L if cos plo LA AcosQ EnergyMatter Interactions re ectance Specular Versus Diffuse Re ectance ngle m Incidence Angle of Incidence Angle of Exitanec smooth water NearPerfect Pcrlect Specular Reflector Spcculm Re ector NearPerfect Perfect Diffuse Re ector Diff 39e Reflector Lumbeniun Surface Figure 21 6 The nature of specular and diffuqe re ectance The Remote Sensing Problem Where does all the energy come from Stefan Boltzmann law MA 0T4 where 039 56697 X 10398 Win2 K394 T temp in Kelvin Wien s displacement law Amax kT Where k is a constant 2898 am K The Remote Sensing Problem Visible spectrum A Infrared Ultraviolet Intensity arbitrary units 1012 1o13 1014 1015 1016 Frequency Hz g l I l I 105 104 1000 100 10 Wavelength nm Blackbody radiation curves The Remote Sensing Problem mm Absorption u c V Almmph a rum m 3W mum rmlh mp quotrum 1 Sum nulimiun m wu Iml Mimi sune IwmJ IliumJ lt1 0 co h PM I 39 I less energy more energy The Remote Sensing Problem Energy Frequency J H Z 2 of Absorption Wavelength D M radiation by atmosphere m u 10393quot 1wquot 10quot 10quotquot 10 Inquot 10 In mi mm km 7 Lung mum wm i 1110 km 10 km 7 H mi kn AM mu m RM broaden m m I 7 v m FM TV Rgdm iUL m Micumm39v h m d 39 window I in 1 Slmnwzwc U radio x mm 7 I m quotUquot Inlmrml mmi 7 4 l Um I I Optical wmdow v VNVhIC A m pm 7 i In L39lumom mo A lquotlLm l 10quot In x my m39 m i V Gamma A m r m The Remote Sensing Problem Scattering Alnmspheric Scattering 39 of Rayleigh Scattering Varies Inversely will A 1m high Sm luring av O m InnlL L nIu IUD Mic Scumring A h 39 Snmkutlml s E E n Scmterinu 1 E on I 2 E T v u c gt m 20 Figure 213 Tum nl wuucring encoum 39cd m the nun plum Hm pcul Hen u unuionnl lrthcw lg vul39mc hlcidlnl Indian Cl BK39VY and It the mic ul39lllc mulcxulcjuxtpmud dnnvulcrwpm39 lruphl unwumcred O 04 05 L6 07 Wavelength Mm The Remote Sensing Problem c Vuriuu thv of Radia RL tunI by a Rumm u snlm mmhunuv mmm x mumm Auwmm mu lmm Rumclan mm qu Rel39lg nughhnnng m n I Fume 22n u u m m m mum 4 quotmm x mm a mewlh m mumme mvuvrwn ml mm u Lam m mm Wu dnhlmldumw udlt W Wynn m mmp mnlm mm mm m 7 mm und mummnmumlrmlmmllnmmm E wtplrmnnn mm
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