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Human Evolutionary Bio

by: Emelie Kihn

Human Evolutionary Bio ANT 001

Emelie Kihn
GPA 3.61

Richard McElreath

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About this Document

Richard McElreath
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emelie Kihn on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 001 at University of California - Davis taught by Richard McElreath in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see /class/187699/ant-001-university-of-california-davis in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of California - Davis.

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Date Created: 09/08/15
Study Guide for ANT 001 1 2 The three conditions necessary for natural selection are a The capacity of an organism to reproduce is in nite but the ability ofthe environment to support the organism is nite b Individual organisms vary and this variation affects survival and reproduction c Traits are passed down from parents to offspring Provide and explain two pieces of evidence which suggest that Homo ergaster hunted and ate meat a Hand axes which are best suited for butchering animals The sharp edges made cutting the hides of the hunted animal Skeleton ofa woman homo ergaster showed a thick layer of abnormal bone tissue This kind of bone growth is symptomatic of vitamin A poisoning The only way to get vitamin A poisoning is to the eat the liver of a large animal such as a leopard or lion Because this woman s bone were deformed we can suggest that homo ergaster ate meat The teeth of homo ergaster are more suited to eating meat than it is for plants Parasites are to date back to a time which coincides with H ergaster Bones of hunted animals showed signs of cut marks from stone tools Campfires to slowly cook the meat Fragmented bones were found at these sites 5339 O thQ F A In some human societies parents tend to give more of their wealth to the children of their daughters than the children of their sons In these societies it is sometimes observed that there are high rates of marital infidelity If this is true explain why Hamilton s rule might promote such an unequal division i fthis is true Hamilton s rule might promote such an unequal division Hamilton rules statesthat a kinship relationship is more likely to develop between individuals who are related and if this is true it creates an unequal division between two siblings Since the sons and daughters are related they should be getting equal share ofthe wealth from their parents The parents are acting as ifthe daughters are more related to them when in fact the sons and daughters share the same amount of relatedness The drawings below depict the legs of two different primate species a indicate which one of these species is bipedal and b label two anatomical characteristics which allow you to make this diagnosis a The rst one is bipedal slanted one b The pelvis ofhumans is attened and ared The knee joint forms an oblique angle causing the femur to slant forward toward the centerline of the body This slant causes the knee to be carried closer to the boy s centerline which increases the ef ciency of bipedal walking 5 Describe two hypotheses that explain the evolution of bipedality in early hominins Be sure to explain in each case why bipedal locomotion was favored by natural selection 2 7391 1 a walkin on two e s is an efficient form of locomotion on the ground Walking on two legs is an efficient form of locomotion on the ground i Although it was thought that quadrupedal was more efficient than bipedal since it s more common and if bipedal were to be more ef cient bipedalism would be more common It has been found that they are more or less equivalent in ef ciency 1 Ancestors of quadrupeds fed on the tops of branches but the ancestors of hominins were suspensory feeders hanging below brances to feed 2 ground locomotion required fewer anatomical changes b Good way to keep cool in open country Erect Posture allowed hominins to keep cool i Quadrupeds were in forest which enabled to keep cool away form the sun When animals were out in the open savannah in the hot sun they were able to keep cool because their bodies have adapted to the environment Humans sweat and an erect posture associated with bipedal locomotion helps reduce stress and lessens the amount of water necessary for evaporative cooling in 3 different ways 1 there is more heat on the ground than it is higher up 2 wind velocities are higher 6ft and above than it is 3 ft walking hominins can withstand the heat of the day 3 erect hominins absorbs heat on its head and shoulders but quadrupeds absorbs heat across its whole back and head c Leaves hands free for carrying thing i Quadrupeds can t carry stuff in their hands because it ll get in the way oftheir walking They would usually have to put the food in their mouth and eat it later Some must eat their food at the site sometimes dangerous but this causes a problem of food competition Bipeds are able to carry large number of items in their hands as they walk d Efficient for harvesting food from small trees i Was favored because it allowed for ef cient harvesting of fruits from small trees Evidence found that chimps rarely walked bipedal but a lot of the time are standing bipedally as they harvest fruit from small trees 1 chimps also use their hands for balance as they pick the fruit and slowly shuffle from depleted patches to fresh ones 2 standing up straight allows the chimps to move around without lowering and raising their body weight 6 N v 3 239 very broad pelvis would make a stable platform for standing on both feet that many anthropologists believe are adaptations for climbing trees are actually adaptations that enabled A afarensisto hang by one hand while standing bipedally and feeding with the other e favored by natural selection because it was more efficient than knuckle walking because i kept hominins cool ii enabled them to carry foodtools form palce to place OR allowed them to feed more ef ciently a identify the genusgroup of the specimen and b label two features of the skull that support your identification a Paranthropus aethiopicus b Has a sagittal crest flat face and forehead and a shorter snout Orangutans live largely solitary lives Females interact mainly with their own infants and juvenile offspring Males respond aggressively when they encounter other males and interact only with females in the context of mating Like other apes orangutans have quite large brains in relation to their body size Explain how these facts do or do not fit with the social intelligence theory of the evolution of intelligence Be sure to explain what the social intelligence theory posits a This does not fit with the social intelligence theory of evolution of intelligence because those that do have quite large brains in relation to their body size live in large groups but orangutans are largely solitary b The hypothesis that the relatively sophisticated cognitive abilities of higher primates are the outcome of selective pressures that favored intelligence as a mean to gain advantages in social groups Work shown on separate sheet of paper a Answer FA 06 Given from question LACP dominant 9 AA Aa LACR recessive 9 aa AA Aa 9 84 Hardy Weinberg Equation pquot2 2pq qquot2 1 pq1 Work 184 016 Using the pq1 equation 1pq we plugged in 84 asp and got 16 as the frequency for aa To nd the frequency for the recessive allele a we took the square root of16 which is equal to 04 1406 Using the same equation as above we got the frequency for the dominant allele A 06A220604016 1 We then pluggedit into pquot2 2pq qquot2 1 to check 06A220604 06 However to nd the frequency forA allele we pluged it into this equation pquot2 2pq12 FA b It hasn t reached 100 yet because of heterozygosity which means that there is both the dominant allele and the recessive allele but only the dominant is expressed Because it is recessive there is still a 25 chance ofthe offspring getting two recessive alleles if its parents are both heterozygous Aa X Aa For a offsprings who have one homozygous AA parent and one heterozygous parent Aa there is a 50 for the offspring to have one recessive allele Some recessive alleles are deleterious alleles when expressed that organism would die off But not all recessive alleles are deleterious LACP has not reached 100 because the recessive allele of LACR is might not be deleterious when expressed


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