New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Ethics in an Age of Tech

by: Ashleigh Dare

Ethics in an Age of Tech ECS 188

Ashleigh Dare
GPA 3.75

Phillip Rogaway

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Phillip Rogaway
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Engineering Computer Science

This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashleigh Dare on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ECS 188 at University of California - Davis taught by Phillip Rogaway in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see /class/187708/ecs-188-university-of-california-davis in Engineering Computer Science at University of California - Davis.

Similar to ECS 188 at UCD

Popular in Engineering Computer Science


Reviews for Ethics in an Age of Tech


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/08/15
Online Privacy Albert Cho Tushar Rawat ECS 188 UC Davis June 4 2009 Word Count 2293 Since the emergence of the Internet privacy has been a lingering but oft sidestepped issue especially within the United States With the introduction of Advanced Research Projects Agency ARPA later known as DARPA in response to the development and launch of the spacecraft Sputnik the ln ternet came to be a prominent tool used by academia and later the general public Att07 The US government is charged with protecting its citizens and in that respect it has failed to act responsibly in regard to online pri vacy Bureaucratic decisions always slow the passage of laws designed to safe guard citizen privacy and are too often on the side of corporate interests In the book Engaging Privacy and Information Technlogy in a Digital Age it7s shown that the US only comes up with new laws years after privacy vi olations initially occur This approach is called the bottom up policy and illustrates that critical privacy issues concerning US citizens are not ad dressed until years later after the problem has persisted WLM07 There are also few standardized laws that deal with online privacy The federal government leaves it up to state governments to come up with their own set of laws to uphold the privacy of the people living within that state WLM07 159 This is a major issue as the Internet has evolved from a lightly used national oddity for light communication to a global backbone infrastructure of business commerce and information There are numerous online privacy issues that have not been adequately addressed in our world today and the governments slow response to these issues is irresponsible and dangerous Online privacy policy is shaped every day by interactions between individu als and corporations with very little regulation in the US The manner in which personal data is collected catalogued and accessed on the Internet a global entity dictates on a very concrete level how peoples lives are affected locally One of the major problems the Internet poses to individuals online is how little control they have over the information that corporations and other in dividuals track and store Many corporations store all kinds of personal data for advertising and personalized7 business practices In a survey of people who shopped online four out of ten people surveyed believed that the company they were shopping from was not storing their personal in formation because of their statements in the privacy policy Waf08 12 The general public does not realize what their online privacy rights are According to privacy advocates these rights include the right to keep se lect information from being revealed online without their explicit consent Social networking websites such as Myspace wwwmyspacecom and Face book wwwfacebookcom take advantage of casual users by providing a medium where users freely and easily post personal often intimate informa tion which is then stored in company databases and more often than not sold to third parties that use the information for pro t through targeted adver tisements 130107 105 Although such common websites appear innocent at rst glance and also through casual use the amount of information that web sites such as these can gather is distinctly disturbing StoO7 As Brad Stone states They argue that users of social networks like MySpace and Facebook are not aware they are being monitored and that current ad targeting is only the rst step in what has become a huge arms race to collect revealing data on Internet users77 StoO7 The heart of this issue lies in the fact that many users of social networking sites such as these do not realize that their personal information may be stored and tracked in a manner they have not speci cally agreed to For instance Facebook at one point began to disclose the private purchases of their users to people that they were connected to on the social network Waf08 14 This was done without the stated consent of the users and is potentially a huge violation of their privacy rights Since Facebook does not clearly notify users when their privacy policy changes there is little warning when a change is made that they the users may be affected in a negative manner to which they initially did not agree to This is a dangerous trend that has no precedence or laws to help regulate what these corpora tions are allowed to do The current privacy laws regarding data collection are not suf cient and need to be rmly established so that users are clearly told when their personal information is going to be given out and what can be done with the information that they provide to companies and websites One way to address the issue of privacy online is to adopt policies similar to what the European Union has implemented The EU takes a proactive stance in dealing with online privacy and pursues legislation to protect its citizens For example7 the users personal information may not be collected without their direct permission7 and all the corporations who do collect data must notify the government of their activities This allows the government to keep an eye on what the corporations are doing with the information they are gathering Waf087 8 The EU7s policies are a direct contrast to the Us government7s policies for online privacy The EU regulates corporations much more heavily than the Us does7 which is possible because in the Us there is no precedence for such government regulation The member countries of the European Union have long enjoyed legislation meant to protect the privacy of its citizens7 online and of ine and in both the public and private sectors European tradition has been such that the state plays an active role in protecting the citizen from social harm77 SRO27 176 The US would do well do take a leaf out of their book and enhance regulation of corporations that store and use data provided by average Internet users In fact7 instead of doing more to protect public interests online7 the Us government has taken action that directly violates online privacy practices In a murder trial in 20057 the prosecution was able to use as evidence that the defendant searched for the words neck7 snap7 break7 and hold on an in ternet search engine before his wife was murdered Waf087 15 He may not have searched for these words at the same time7 but the fact that he did an online search of these words was used as evidence against him The prosecu tion being the US government7 it is somewhat unclear how they obtained the search information Nevertheless the fact remains that the information was stored and readily accessible by a government agency This sets a dan gerous precedence for future privacy laws Internet users may not be able to keep anything private when they are online In an even more disturbing case7 the prosecution was able to use as evidence that the defendant used the search engine Google to research how to broadcast interference over wi 24 GHZ 7 interference over wi 24 GHZ 7 wireless networks 24 in terference 7 and make device interfere wireless network77 Waf087 15 The defendant was accused of wireless hacking and the FBI was able to obtain this data and use it as evidence against him during the court trial Google has publicly stated that they are required by law to provide search histories when they are requested to do so via subpoena The United States government needs to carefully analyze these actions7 because future repercussions may be detrimental to the privacy of online users If routine keyword searches are being stored without the knowledge the querying user7 then the implicit trust assumed by such users online is in jeopardy of vanishing The past few decades have seen extensive changes in the way informa tion is stored7 not only due to privacy concerns7 but also to handle the vast increase in data being generated and processed on the Internet daily When ever there is a large amount of information that needs to be stored or a small amount of data that requires dedicated organization a database is the vessel of choice to keep such information A database is a construct composed of relations that contain and collate information in a structured manner It facilitates easy storing and relatively easy access to the data as needed and is increasingly preferred over at les77 which are singular les containing plaintext Other methods of storing information include but are not lim ited to XML pages and static websites CdVF08 173 By itself a database provides little to no security in dealing with privacy concerns As stated its main purpose is simply to store the information and here is the second major problem It is manyfold A database itself stores information in the manner that the information is presented to it Say a customer signs up at an online shopping site providing information such as rst name last name a user password home address and credit card information The company has two ways of handling this data they can either store all of it as plaintext into the database so that anyone looking at the database can read the consumers personal information or they may encrypt it in such a way that personal information can be stored yet persons viewing the database cannot readily gain privileged information without the correct cypher key that was used to encrypt the data Credit card companies in the United States are required by law to encrypt credit card information during transactions and within their databases however other companies and individuals are not required to do so CdF087 172 Although it may seem an obvious advantage to encrypt all data within a database7 thus securing both the identity and information of individuals whose sensitive material is contained within7 encryption adds a layer of overhead to accessing the information In addition7 if a user forgets what information was entered into the database7 encrypted content cannot be easily recovered7 thus introducing customer dissatisfaction Thus many com panies choose to encrypt only certain information7 such as user passwords7 so that database maintainers and anyone else looking at the database cannot readily access user accounts Obviously this does not prevent malicious in dividuals from using other sensitive material that may lie unencrypted such as Social Security Numbers SSN or credit information without the users knowledge or consent Another invasion of privacy online is one that Internet users tacitly accept7 or overlook7 on a daily basis whether they are conducting business or not The majority of websites today use les called cookies which are used to track user activities Cookies contain a small amount of text that can be used for a variety of different operations The original use of cookies was to implement a way for websites to have a memory7 so that a user could be shopping or interacting at a given website7 the website would send a cookie to that users browser7 and when the user came back to that same web page the site would remember7 this user and show the same contents in their virtual shopping cart as before or remember preferences based on their last visit SchOl7 1 Cookies often serve a benign purpose in that they simply provide a convenience to the individual browsing the site However combined with personal information that is ever increasingly collected by the same site the innocuous little cookie can become a powerful tracking tool that gives enormous insight into the tastes of the previously anonymous web surfer Although many Internet browsers provide options that prevent reject cookies from websites turning off cookie functionality will render sites that depend on them for authentication useless Thus in the case of cookies the Internet individual trades away their privacy for convenience Sch01 2 As we7ve shown privacy online is not a cut and dried issue with clear demarkations on what is allowed and what isn7t It seems like cookies are a necessary evil and that with the amount of information being generated collected and distributed online that databases are necessary now more than ever However usage of such media when it comes to individual privacy should be considered very carefully In order to maintain the integrity of sensitive information there must be tradeoffs If a database contains records with privileged information such as SSNs and credit card data to name a few items then either access to the database must be strictly regulated by database managers or the contents must be encrypted to a reasonably degree Such an action would ensure that if someone managed to access the database the information would be unreadable and thus harmless to the individuals who provided it A further measure to prevent acquisition of sensitive data would be to fragment the database in such a manner that contents do not relate to one another in an obvious manner CdVF08 176 Again this would involve a tradeoff between security and accessibility Maintenance costs would also increase in such an implementation However increased measures are needed to ensure the safety of data online Just recently the University of California Berkeley uncovered a data breach in which 160000 records from University Health Services databases were compromised via hackers in Asia Gr009 It took university of cials 6 months to detect the breach and by that time the damage had been done A student told a health services manager last week that a new bank account had been opened in April using his or her name and Social Security number77 Gr009 Had the Health Services database employed encryption or provided better security the loss of data might have been prevented andor minimized People have a right to their data being kept private especially when that information has been volunteered forth with the assumption that it is in capable hands and secure References Att07 Richard Van Atta Fifty years of innovation and discovery DARPA 2007 CdVF08 Valentina Ciriani Sabrina De Capitani di Vimercati Sara Foresti Sushil Jajodia Stefano Paraboschi and Pierangela Samarati Computer Security ESORICS 2007 volume 4734 Gr009 P0107 Sch01 SROQ St007 Waf08 WLM07 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science Springer Berlin Heidel berg7 September 2008 Rachel Gross UC berkeley students concerned about data breach7 2009 Irene Pollach Whats wrong with online privacy policies Com munications 0f the 140M7 50957 September 2007 John Schwartz Giving the web a memory cost its users privacy7 September 2001 Jared Strauss and Kenneth S Rogerson Policies for online pri vacy in the united states and the european union Telemattes and Informatics7 192173 7 1927 2002 Brad Stone Myspace to discuss effort to customize ads7 Septem ber 2007 Tim Wafa Today7s inef cient and impotent global internet pri vacy rights regime and tomorrow7s inferior alternative pages 87 12 14 15 2008 James Waldo7 Herbert Lin7 and Lynette Millett Engaging Pri vacy and Information Teehnlogy in a Digital Age National Academy Press7 2007 ECS 188 Ethics in an Age of Technology Handout SG UC Davis 7 Phil Rogaway April 97 2009 SmallGroup Discussions Names of those in your group 7777 Section circle one Section 2 TR 149300 Section 1 TR 449600 Neil Postman identi es ve aspects of technological change that he wants us to be aware of 7 Tradeoff Any new technology gives something and also takes something away to Distribution The costs and bene ts of technologies are not equally shared 03 Powerful idea Each technology contains within it a philosophy and a prejudice F Ecological Technological change is not additive7 but ecological U Mythic Technollgy gets viewed as part of the natural order of things Each group will be assigned one of the following technologies to focus on Discuss among yourselves how the introduction and use of the technology you are looking at illustratesior refutesieach of Postman s ve claims Produce a page of notes and be prepared to present orally to the class Not all technologies are as relevant to each claim as all others focus on those of the ve claims that seem most interesting and relevant in your case 7 Lectureformat classroom instruction N 5th century AD to Sunscreen N 1928 03 Mobile phones N 1983 F iPod N 2001


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.