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Chapter 7

by: Qiu Jiawei

Chapter 7 MKT 300

Qiu Jiawei
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Hello This is Dr.Montoya class notes
Marketing Management
Class Notes
MKT 300




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Qiu Jiawei on Monday February 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MKT 300 at Arizona State University taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Marketing Management in Marketing at Arizona State University.

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Date Created: 02/29/16
Chapter 7 A Perspective on Consumer Behavior:  Consumer Behavior 消消消消消 is the dynamic interaction of affect and cognition, behavior, and the environment in which human beings conduct the exchange aspects (product and service purchases) of their lives.  Consumer Behavior: - How do consumers make decisions? - Why do consumers make the decisions that they make? - How can marketers influence a consumer’s decision-making process?  How do consumers identify and evaluate choices?  The Consumer Decision-Making Process is the steps that consumers take to identify and evaluate choice options.  Cognitive Dissonance: Discomfort caused by a purchase decision Low satisfaction, return product.  How can marketers reduce cognitive dissonance? - Reassuring consumers they made the right choice and minimizing the potential for product misuse.  Consumer Decision-Making Process: - Need Recognition or Problem Recognition - Information Search - Evaluate Alternatives - Purchase Decision - Post purchase Evaluation  Consumer Decision-Making Process:five steps 1. Need recognition - Internal: could be your stomach is growing. My toe is sticking out of my shoes. - External: couple b a marketing message. May be it is from a restaurant. 2. Information search: For some types of purchases, consumers will search for more information before they are willing to make a decision. -How much information you have -Ease of obtaining information -Value you place on information - Information Sources: ­ Personal (most effective) Family, friends, neighbors, and casual or work acquaintances ­ Commercial Advertising, salespeople, dealers, Web sites, packaging, and displays ­ Public Mass media articles or news programs, Internet searches, consumer rating organizations ­ Experiential Using, handling, or examining the product 3. Evaluate alternatives: ­ Process varies with product type: Careful, logical Impulse Seek advice ­ Weigh Attributes: location, weather, cost of living, access to professional sports teams ­ Rank Brands: based on location, weather, cost of living, access to professional sports teams ­ weight attributes to rank brands 4. purchase decision: Brand to purchase selected, but not bought ­ Choice can still be altered Opinion of others Unexpected 5. Post purchase Evaluation: Consumer satisfaction is a function of consumer expectations and perceived product performance. ­ Discomfort caused by a purchase decision to Low satisfaction, product returns ­ If Performance Is BELOW: Expectations = Disappointment ­ If Performance EQUALS : Expectations = Satisfaction ­ Performance Is GREATER: than Expectations = Delight ­ How can markets reduce cognitive dissonance: Don not overpromise. ­ Cognitive Dissonance:  Marketers can minimize dissonance by: Reassuring consumers they made the right choice and minimizing the potential for product misuse (product literature and instructions).  Offering mechanisms for lodging complaints (1-800 phone numbers, Web forms, etc.).  Being responsive to problems and questions.  Three product categories: - Approach: are products consumers gain enjoyments from like jewelry fashion, cars, entertainment. It is much easier to create emotional connection with consumers with approach products. - Avoidance: like insurance. - Utilitarian: are products neither enjoyed nor ensures as precaution.  Factors than influence consumer decisions: 6.  Consumer Decision-Making Process (personal influence):  self identify ­ Concept of ideal self and what you wish to be can influence products  Personality ­ How or where you like to shop.  Lifestyle ­ Like to buy online; outdoorsy  age and life stage ­ single, kids  vocation ­ white – collar, blue collar  affluence ­ how much money you make; financial means.  VALS Program: 7. A survey developed by SRI Consulting Business Intelligence 8. Divides people into eight groups: high resources innovation, lower resources innovation Innovators Believers Thinkers Strikers Achievers Makers Experiencers Survivors  Consumer Decision-Making Process: psychological influence  Perceptions ­ You experience affect you differently ­ Perception canvary ­ Personal cognitive sense of stimuli that affect behaviors.  Selective Attention ­ People screen out most of the information to which they have been exposed.  Selective Distortion vs. Retention 1. Selective Distortion ­ Tendency of people to interpret information in a way that supports what they already believe. 2. Selective Retention ­ Consumers are likely to remember good points made about a brand they favor and to forget good points made about competing brands ­ Chipotle  Motivation: A motive (or drive) is a gap between the current and desired state.  Motivation: set of conditions that creates a drive toward an action to fulfill a need or want.  Maslow’s hierarchy of needs explains why people are driven by needs at particular times.  Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: ::: Self-Actualization Needs:(self development) Esteem Needs: (Self-esteem, status) Social Needs: (Sense of belonging, love) Safety Needs: (Security, protection) Physiological Needs: (Hunger, thirst)  Beliefs and Attitudes: ­ A belief is a descriptive thought that a person holds about something. ­ An attitude is a person’s consistently favorable or unfavorable feelings, evaluations, and tendencies toward an object or idea; what one feels, knows and tendencies.  LEARNING: experience and how we learn ­ Drive: internal stimuli encourage action ­ Cue: external stimuli ­ Response: consumer’s reaction ­ Reinforcement: behaviors with satisfying results tend to be repeated.  Consumer Decision-Making Process: situational influences  Purchase environments ­ Shelf-placement, sale, crowded store  Time ­ How much time you have  Digital environment ­ Product rating Yelp  Overall context ­ Circumstance raining and buying umbrellas  Culture and Subculture  Culture: shared values, beliefs, and preferences of a particular society  A subculture is a group of people who share value systems based on common life experiences  Consumer Decision-Making Process: social influences  Social influence ­ Culture: shared values, beliefs in particular society ­ Subculture: group of people who share value systems bases on common life experiences.  Groups and Social Networks 1. Membership Groups ­ Groups with direct influence and to which a person belongs 2. Aspirational Groups ­ Groups an individual wish to belong to 3. Reference Groups ­ Groups that form a comparison or reference in forming attitudes or behavior ­ Points of comparison 4. Influential groups ­ Sport team, sorority, peer 5. Dissociative groups ­ Not apart of and DO NOT WANT to be apart of  Groups and Online Social Networks 1. Opinion leaders are people within a reference group who exert social influence on others ­ Marketers identify them to use as brand ambassadors 2. Online Social Networks  Social class ­ Upper class ­ Middle class ­ Working class ­ Lower class  Family and gender roles ­ Family: one of the most important influences ­ Gender Roles: expected activities (mon manager)  (exam know difference between type) Consumer problem solving: is how someone comes to a conclusion about a situation  routine problem solving ­ well developed process to make decision on buying  limited problem solving ­ consumer expects to make some effect in making decision. Some risk, some alterative.  Significant problem solving ­ Lot of time and research


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