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2444 Sports History

by: Holly Melton

2444 Sports History 2444

Marketplace > East Carolina University > History > 2444 > 2444 Sports History
Holly Melton

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These are week 6 lecture notes, please feel free to share with friends :)
History of Sports in Western History
Class Notes
2444, sports, history, Sports History
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Holly Melton on Monday February 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2444 at East Carolina University taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see History of Sports in Western History in History at East Carolina University.


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Date Created: 02/29/16
Gender and Female Athletics Gender and Athletics  Victorians assumed sports were exclusively a manly activity   The 19  centuries believed that Women did not need to be physically  fit and active sports were unfeminine  Women were warned against sports because they were too weak,  and they lose modesty and self­control, and women would become  too aggressive    Few woman were bold enough to break the rule that women aren’t  supposed to participate in sports  Pioneering Sportswomen  In the 1830 Katharine Beecher, was a very influential spokesperson  for the Cult of Domesticity, advocated physical training in her book  The book encouraged exercise to promote physical and moral health  to insure a healthy home  Decades passed before women even started playing, wealthy women started playing before the poor women  In the 1860s the top all female colleges established physical  education programs with bad mitten, croquet, bowling, skating,  swimming, and tennis along with interclass baseball and basketball  team  Sports were a believe that sports improved student performance and  the mind   From the 1890s to the 1910s some women played baseball on  industrial teams (teams sponsored by employers to provide activities  for their employees) or professional touring teams Alta Weiss  The finest female ball player, her pitching talent brought her  nationwide fame by the age of 14  Her father, a ball playing doctor, sponsored the Weiss Allstars  featuring Alta as pitcher  Her athletic career ended because of the strain on women and  sports, she graduated Medical school in 1914 as the only women  The “New Woman”  “New Woman” attended athletic events, rode her bicycle  Cycling became safer and enjoyable because of the “safety bicycle”  was built  Participated in reform movements and pushed for voting rights   The bicycle was a “Freedom Machine” for woman   Amelia Bloomer invented bloomers that allow women to ride and  pedal with comfort an modesty   This became a controversy because men were supposed to wear the  pants in the family, it arose complications between gender norms and fashion  Helen Wills  Helen Wills (Tennis), Gertrude Ederle (Swimming), Babe Didrikson  Zaharias (Golf and Track & Field) were 3 pioneers for women  athletics  Helen Wills was the first woman to reach international fame  Wills entered 24 events and won 19 grand slams titles  Wills also achieved 12 grand slam titles in doubles and mix doubles  along with 2 gold medals won in the 1924 Olympics in Paris  Her most famous match was her loss, the match attracted much  attention and tickets were $50 Gertrude Ederle  Known as “Truddy” to her fans  She was partially deaf   Between 1921 and 1925 she set 29 U.S World Records along with 1  gold and 2 bronze medals at the 1924 Paris Olympics  She was the first woman to swim across the English Channel, it was  supposed to be a 21 mile swim but turned into a 35 mile swim  because of the high waters and strong tide  When she finished the swim her time bested the 5 men who swam  this route by 2 hours  Ederle welcomed her home as a national leader and she had 2  million people waiting to congratulate her at the end of the swim  Babe Didrikson Zaharias  Challenged traditional gender norms and had far less support  Qualified as the greatest American athlete of all time  Rose to fame as a track and field star  Entered the 1932 national AAU meet, qualifying her as a one person  team allowing her to compete in all 1932 Olympic events  In a three hour period she won 6 of the 10 events, setting 3 world and 2 U.S records earning 30 points   In the 1932 Olympics rules limited Babe to 3 events and won 2,  rd setting both world records along with a Silver medal in the 3  event  She played in baseball as a pitcher against women and men   As an adult she played Golf dominating the women’s game in 1945 to 1955.  Won the grand slam in 1950, and earned over $100,000 in prize  money  She made the cut on many men’s professional tours and was the only women to do so  Played a role in the formation of the Lady’s Professional Golf  Association in 1950  Her exploits on the course raised awareness to women’s golf   In 1956 she died of colon cancer at the age of 45   Media coverage concentrated on her sexuality and questions about it throughout her athletic career  Many believed she was a man or a transgender, it labeled her the  “Freakish Muscle mall”   Homosexuality was not accepted and many believed she was a  lesbian because of her uninterest in heterosexuality   Didrikson was forced to compromise to meet society’s expectation by  wearing more feminine clothes, wearing makeup, changing her  hairstyle, in 1938 married George Zaharias a professional wrestler    After her transformation the media welcomed her as a woman and  looked at her as the greatest American athlete Rollback of Women’s Intercollegiate & Girls Interscholastic Sports  Most competitive intercollegiate or interscholastic sports were  abolished and was not established until the 1960s or 1970s  Competitive programs were replaced by intermural or “Play Day”  sports to de­emphasize individual competition All­American Girls Professional Baseball League (AAGPBL)  Women’s baseball came into play because millions of able body’s  went to fight in the WWII war, hundreds were Major League Ball  players  To fill the rosters players who would not of made the Major League  Baseball were employed  Baseball executives created the AAGPBL in absence of Major  Leaguers  The brain child of Chicago Club owner, Phillip Prigly in 1943 began a  game of fast pitch softball and rules evolved to similar rules to the  Major League  There were some differences like the size of the field and the size of  the ball along with playing in skirts  The AAGPBL players had to attend charm school where they learned how to talk, dress, and act like women  This portrayed the players as ladylike which conformed to the strict  gender norms 


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