Research Methods & Statistics 2
Research Methods & Statistics 2 Psychology 211
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexis Notetaker on Monday February 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 211 at Southern Illinois University Carbondale taught by Zachary Pilot in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Behavioral Statistics in Psychlogy at Southern Illinois University Carbondale.
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Date Created: 02/29/16
Psy Notes 2 Thursday, February 11, 2013:43 PM Types of Research… Observational Natural vs. Contrived • Natural ○ Settings have no intrusions or interruption by the researcher Observing choice of soft drinks at restaurant a from distant table • Contrived ○ Laboratory Setting are designed for observing behavior □ Sign up for study and get watched while eating Disguised vs. Non-disguised • Disguised ○ Observation is when the researcher conceals that behavior is being recorded Privacy and consent issues • Non-disguised ○ Observation is when people know they are being observed Hawthorne Effect (reactivity) How will you record data? • Checklists ○ Structure observation, record attributes or behavior • Latency & Duration ○ Reaction time, completion time • Rating scales ○ Observer rates behavior on dimensions Observational concerns • Interrater Reliability ○ Need clear description of behaviors to be recorded ○ Raters should practice by comparing and discussing their ratings Types of Research…Physiological • Neural Electrical Activity • Neuroimaging • Nervous System Activity • Blood and Saliva Self-Report • Asking participants to provides their own information • Two methods ○ Questionnaires and Interviews Some approaches… • Single-item measures ○ Meant to stand on their own less reliable • Multi-item measures ○ A series of items more reliable How to write effective questions • Use precise language ○ "What do you do after class?" • Use basic words without jargon ○ "Have you used the ILL service?" • Don’t make assumptions • Don’t make assumptions ○ "How many apps do you have on your phone?" • Avoid double-barreled questions ○ "This service is interesting and useful." How to write effective questions • Three response options: ○ Free-response "How would you recommend changing the website?" ○ Multiple choice "Which of the following would be most useful?" A) Purchase button B) Shopping Cart C) PayPal ○ Rating/Likert Scale "Please rate how important a 'purchase' button is" 1(not important) 2 3(important) 4 5(very important) • Questionnaire ○ Most common self-report ○ Participants respond on their own and record their own answers Advantages: no need for training, cheap, quick, can collect serval at once • Interviews ○ Participants provide answers which are recorded by interviewer Advantages: better for some populations, can confirm that questions are understood Self-repot biases • Social Desirability Response ○ Acquiescence Saying yes all the time Naysaying □ Saying no all the time
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