Lecture Notes Week 1
Lecture Notes Week 1 390
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacob Erle on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 390 at Syracuse University taught by Dr. Sharron Farrell in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Wildlife Ecology and Management in Foreign Language at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 09/08/15
Wildlife Ecology and Management Notes Week 1 9315 ntro What is Wildlife Many De nitions From our text quotIn general the wildlife profession considers wildlife to be freeliving Wild animals excluding feral or exotic species of major signi cance to humansquot This is meant to include associated plants and quotlower animals eg microorganisms because Wildlife are so linked to their habitats Many aspects to Wildlife Ecology element Popuation parameters limiting factors habitat quality dispersal etc Many aspects to Management element also Goas Modi cation of soil and vegetation predator control scale etc What voices are parts of the decisionmaking process with regards to Management Government and nongov t agencies stakeholders homeowners policy regulations etc History of Wildlife Management Roman Empire 27BC 600AD Animas argey considered belonging to everyone or no one at all such as with the air amp ocean Animas only became property if captured or killed lawfuy on one s own property However hunting was very common Dispay of slaying animals form of entertainment Roman Coliseum Saxon Invasion of England 400AD Distribution of land based on nobility Roya forests established but only to be used by the king Medieval Period 6001300 Feudal System everything considered property of the kingcurrent ruer taking of animals prohibited and limited weapon access Robin Hood William the Conqueror Normans 1066 AD expanded royal forest areas government could manage private lands for wildlife Franchises hunting permit aowed person to hunt on their own land possibly others but still restricted to noble class By 1300 many franchises had been issued especially for shing in waterways l problems arose with decreasing numbers of sh and available water Parliament passed Quali cation Statutes very exclusive hunting permits for wealthy avaiabe for individuals meeting certain standards 1600s and 1700s 1677 Connecticut prohibits game exports 1739 1st game warden in Massachusetts 1776 1st game law regulating deer season 1791 5th Amendment rati ed Takings clause The power of the government to take private property and convert it into public use The Fifth Amendment provides that the government may only exercise this power if they provide just compensation to the property owners Many regulate takings disputes arise in context of land use regulation The Supreme Court doesn t require government compensation when said regulations dramatically increase government interests AND the regulations don t prevent landowners from pro ting through use of theuland 18005 Transcendentalism movement originating in New England in 18305505 features a direct relationship with nature Intrinsic Value 1839 Nature by Emerson 1842 Martin v Waddell Foundation of Public Trust Doctrine 1664 trust relationship has origins in other historic laws but the public trust in wildlife is considered to be distinctly American 3 Principles Wildlife can be owned by no individual but is held by the state in trust for all the people As trustee the state has no power to delegate its trust duties and no freedom to transfer trust ownership or management of assets to private concerns The state has the af rmative duty to ful ll trust responsibilities i e it cannot sit by idly while trust resources are depleted or wasted Riparian landowner on New Jersey Raritan River claimed to own both riparian areas and land beneath the river Justi cation featured grant issued from King Charles to Duke of York ChiefJustice s verdict was lands held by the King as a public trust Used the Magna Carta to determine the King did not have authority to make a grant of that area 1849 Establishment of Department of the Interior see the many other sub agencies in DOI 1854 Walden by Thoreau 1859 On the Origin of Species by Darwin 1862 Lincoln signs Land Grant Act 1865 1st Game Department 1871 The Descent of Man by Darwin Formation of Forest Division aka Forest Service 1872 President Grant established 1st National Park Yellowstone 1886 Formation of Audubon Society 1896 Geer v Connecticut articuated a theory of state ownership of wildlife Geer was convicted of moving lawfully harvested game birds out of CN ChiefJustice traced history of government control over wildlife l determined states had the right to regulate commonalities in game which was to act quotas a trust for the bene t of the peoplequot 9515 lmportant Court Cases look at background verdict and implications 5th Amendment Takings Clause Public Trust Doctrine Late 18005 early 19005 1890John Muir preservation of wildlife advocate founder of Yosemite National Park and Sierra Club 1894ClevelandYellowstone Protection Act combat poachingtrapping no removal of any species unless deemed deleterious to wildlife integrity 1900Lacey Act Federal Law prohibits trade in wildlife sh and plants illegally taken penalties for violators Secretary of Interior allowed adopting all necessary measures for preservation distribution introduction and restoration of birds reguates introduction of birds and animals to places where they have never existed before 1 time Federal Law enacted to protect Wildlife President Theodore Roosevelt 19011909 contributed to formation of Bureau of Biological Survey 1905 estabished Boone and Crockett Club 1887 Reduced role of state and local government emphasized federal role in management of natural resources Reclamation Act 1902 federal funds to build reservoirs and irrigations words met some resistance from impacts to wild lands amp the wildlife that came with them Peican Island 1st National Park 1903 Gifford Pinchot appointed to lead US Forest Service Antiquities Act 1906 created extensive areas dedicated to conservation across the nation 19091933 Period of focus on eco development Taft Wilson Harding Coolidge Hoover less on conservation 1913 Pennsylvania issues 1st state hunting license 19141918 WWI 1918 Migratory Bird Treaty Act MBTA unawfu to pursue kill migratory birds or any parts feathers eggs nests that go with them lnternationa Law applied to the States as well fundamentally important when rst issued but doesn t have much effect in nowadays 1930s Aldo Leopold father of wildlife conservation in US author of San Antonio Almanac 1933 Game Management managed species through predator control In addition Dust Bowl result of drought and overfarming Great Depression 1933 FDR becomes President 19331945 Civiian Conservation Corps CCC Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act Soi Erosion Service now NCRS Tayor Grazing Act Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp now Duck Stamp pays fees back into wildlife research 1936 The Wildlife Society Formed 1937 PittmanRobertson Federal Aid In Wildlife Restoration Act 11 tax that has been used for funding wildlife research projects Late 39305 Bureau of Fisheries and Biological Survey merged to form US Fish amp Wildlife Service 193945 WWII 1942 Bailey v Holland Prohibition of hunting on private lands adjacent to refuge but without adequate compensation Potential violation of 5th amendment Takings Clause 19405605 Green Revolution Normal Borlaug use of chemicals to increase food output first primitive applications of GMOs 1947 Federal Insecticide Fungicide Rodenticide Act FERPA 1st to regulate chemicals in environment 1947905 Cold War 195053 Korean War 19505 US in Vietnam escalated in early 605 1950 Lansden v Hart Government closing of hunting on private property without compensation lanother violation of the 5th Amendment s Takings CIause 1960 Sikes Act fish wildlife natural resources protected and enhanced conservation promoted while allowing military lands to meet operational military needs argey done through Integrated Natural Resource Management Plan INRMP federa act obligates military institute another federal power to manage wildlife 1962 Rachel Carson publishes Silent Spring documents environmental effects of pesticides accusations towards chemical industry of corruption New perspective advocates towards environmental health and human health 1964 Wilderness Act secure wilderness for future generations Late 605 Forming of Organizations and Clubs Environmental Defense Fund Sierra Club World Wildlife Fund Conservation International etc Environmenta Movement Increases in Popularity Environmenta Disasters Recognizing effects of toxic chemicals Man on the Moon see all available resources aren t in nite 1969 Nixon becomes President 69 74 Marine Mammal Protection Act National Environmental Protection Act Cean Air Act Cean Water Act Endangered Species Act 1973 Estabished EPA Major Revision to FIFRA 1970 1st Earth Day Late 19005 1970 Hughes v Oklahoma Congress governs wildlife on federal lands In terms of legislation on wildlife supremacy clause will trump state law 1978 Tennessee Valley Authority v Hill Tellico Dam project delayed due to snail darter keeping water enclosed in reservoir would lead to loss of habitat makes a hallmark of endangered species cases agencies are exempt from requirements if projects are of regionalnational signi cance and project going through outweighs any possible alternatives requires mitigation plan 1992 Clinton becomes president 19922000 1996 All DOI scientists joined to National Biological Survey renamed the Biological Resource Division of USGS Formation of Cooperative Ecosystem Study Units CESUs 20005 Conservation and Reinvestment Act CARA proposed by not fully supported quotCaralitequot created State Wildlife Grant program END OF NOTES
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