HA & P Chapter 5 Lesson 7
HA & P Chapter 5 Lesson 7 Bio 2010
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelsie Carter on Monday February 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 2010 at University of Colorado Colorado Springs taught by Sabine Allenspach in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology in Biology at University of Colorado Colorado Springs.
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Date Created: 02/29/16
An Introduction to the Integumentary System 1. the integument A. 16% of body weight B. 1.5 to 2cm^2 in area C. the inegument is made up of two parts a. cutaneous membrane b. accessory structures and organs (hair, nails) 2. 2 components of the cutaneous membrane A. outer epidermis- keratinized stratified squamous ET B. inner dermis- dense irregular CT 3. accessory structures A. originate in the dermis B. extend through the epidermis to skin surface a. hair b. nails c. multicellular exocrine glands 4. hypodermis- superficial fascia or subcutaneous layer A. adipose tissue and areolar CT B. below dermis C. location of hypodermic or subcutaneous injections (for blood clots) 5. functions of the skin A. protection: of underlying tissue and organs B. excretion: of salts, water, and organic wastes (glands) C. maintenance of body temperature: insulation and evaporation D. production of melanin E. production of keratin F. synthesis of vitamin D3 (sunlight) (this process continues in the kidney) G. storage of lipids H. detection: of touch, pressure, pain, and temperature Epidermis 1. the epidermis A. completely avascular a. nutrients and oxygen diffuse from capillaries in the dermis into the epidermis b. cells of the epidermis: I. keratinocytes II. basal or stem cells 2. thin skin A. 6 layers B. covers most of the body 3. thick skin A. 4 layers B. palms/ soles of feet 4. structures of the epidermis A. the 5 strata of keratinocytes in thick skin B. from basal lamina to free surface a. stratum basale- base layer, melanoctyes b. stratum spinosum- made of keratinocytes and dendritic cells c. stratum granulosm d. stratum ludicum- clear layer, only in thick skin e. stratum cornium- horny layer 5. stratum basale A. attached to basement membrane by hemi desmosomes B. forms strong bond between epidermis and dermis C. forms epidermal ridges D. dermal papillae E. basal cells: stem cells F. merkel cells: tactile cells, in hairless skin G. melanocytes: contain ligaments, produce melanin 6. stratum spinosum A. produced by division of stratum basale B. turn into keratinocytes C. connected by desmosomes D. cells shrink E. 8-10 layers F. specialized cell: dendritic cell, Langerhans cell 7. stratum granulosum A. cells of stratum gramulosum- cells dehydrate and die B. stops dividing, starts producing: a. keratin I. structural protein (tough fibrous) II. nails and hair are made b. keratohyalin I. dense granules (function: causing keratin fibers to crosslink) 8. stratum lucidum A. superficial to stratum granulosum (in thick skin) B. covers stratum granulosum 9. stratum corneum A. exposed surface of skin B. 15-30 layers C. function: water resistant 10. perspiration A. insensible perspiration a. interstitial fluid is lost through evaporation in stratum corneum B. sensible perspiration a. water loss through sweating C. dehydration results: a. from damage to stratum corneum (burns and blisters (insensible perspiration)) b. from immersion in hypertonic solution (saltwater(osmosis)) Skin Color 1. skin color is influenced by two pigments A. keratin a. orange- yellow pigment b. orange yellow pigment comes from vegetables, converted into vitamin A c. accumulates in epidermal cells and fatty tissues of the dermis B. melanin a. yellow- brown pigment produced by melanocytes b. stored in transport vesicles (melanosomes) c. transferred to keratinocytes 2. function of melanocytes A. protect skin rom UV radiation B. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation a. causes DNA mutations and burns that lead to cancer and wrinkles C. skin color depends on melanin production 3. capillaries and skin color A. oxygenated red blood contributes to skin color a. blood vessels dilate heat and turn red b. blood vessels constriction and the skin becomes pale B. cyanosis (blue baby) a. happens in hands and feet first b. can happen at birth or later; skin looks blue c. peripheral tissues aren’t getting oxygenated 4. illness and skin color A. Jaundice a. skin turns yellow, happens in the eyes first b. caused by a buildup of bile, which is produced by the liver B. Pituitary Tumor a. hormone MSH increases the production of melanin b. which causes dark skin C. Addison’s Disease a. MRH is produced which stimulates MHS which produces melanin b. this causes bronze looking skin D. Vitiligo a. skin has patches of white b. caused by loss of melanocytes E. skin cancer (melanoma) a. asymmetry b. border c. color d. diameter e. evolving The dermis 1. the dermis A. anchors epidermal accessory structures (hair follicles, sweat glands) B. two components 1. papillary layer 2. the papillary layer A. tissue: areolar CT B. contains large blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, collagen and elastic fibers 3. dermal strength and elasticity A. presence of 2 types of fibers a. collagen I. very strong, stretching but bend easily II. provide flexibility b. elastic I. permit stretching and then recoil to original length II. limit the flexibility of collagen fibers to prevent damage B. skin turgor a. properties of flexibility and resilience b. assess dehydration c. pinch top of hand/finger 4. dermal blood supple A. cutaneous plexus a. a network of arteries along the reticular layer B. papillary/ subpappilary plexus a. capillary network from small arteries in papillary layer C. venus plexus a. capillary return deep to the papillary plexus D. contusion a. damage to blood vessel resulting in (black-and-blue) bruising 5. innervation of the skin A. nerve fibers in skin control a. gland secretion b. blood flow c. receptors I. light touch: tactile/mysner’s cells II. deep pressure and vibration: lamular corpuscle The Hypodermis 1. the hypodermis or subcutaneous layer A. location: below skin or integument B. function: stabilize skin, allows separate individual movements (increase in elastic fibers, stores energy with adipose) a. site of subcutaneous injections using hypodermic needles C. tissue a. connected to the reticular layer of integument by connective tissue fibers b. few capillaries and no vital organs Sebacious Glands and Sweat Gland 1. exocrine glands in skin A. sebaceous glands or oil glands a. holocrine gland (cells burst) b. secrete sebum B. sweat glands a. merocrine and eccrine glands b. apocrine glands c. secrete water product 2. apocrine sweat glands A. location: arm pit, groin, nipples B. secrete products into hair follicles C. produce sticky, cloudy c=secretions, break down and cause odors D. surrounded by myoepithelial cells a. function: squeeze apocrine gland secretions onto the skin surface b. in response to hormonal or nervous signals 3. merocrine and eccrine sweat glands A. location: all over body, most are in palm of hands and soles of feet B. discharged directly onto skin C. sensible perspiration: water, salts, and organic compounds D. function: product is released by exocytotically a. sensible secretion cools down the skin b. flushed microorganisms and harmful chemicals from the skin 4. other integumentary glands A. mammary glands: specialized integument gland that produces milk B. ceruminous glands: in ear canal and it produces cerumen (ear wax) 5. control of glands A. autonomic nervous system (ANS) a. no control, controls apocrine and sebaceous glands b. works simultaneously over the entire body B. merocrine sweat glands a. controlled independently, might be hormonally b. sweating occurs locally C. thermoregulation a. work with the cardiovascular system b. regulates body temperature
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