Unit V of Notes in History 1010
Unit V of Notes in History 1010 1010
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Robert Kessinger on Monday February 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1010 at Auburn University taught by Daren Ray in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 88 views. For similar materials see World History 1 in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/29/16
Bobby Kessinger Unit V Notes Ch. 10 2/29 Ecological Imperialism Big Question: How did rulers in the Late PostClassical Era (10001400) gain power by reshaping their environment. Can you: Describe how geography influenced the diffusion of culture and state building in North America and MesoAmerica. Contrast how the rulers of Japan and Ethiopia used natural resources to create a political power. Define and give examples of Ecological Imperialism? Lessons from the Americas Commerce encourages societies to “scale up” Why? Ingenuity does not guarantee longevity because.. natural disasters can occur and other lands can invade Ecological Imperialism can make the environment unsustainable for large populations Commercial Isolation Europe: by default Japan: by choice The Japanese Prince Shotoku promotes Chinese models: Confucianism Buddhism System of writing, literature, architecture, etc. Not Everyone wants to be connected In 838 C.E., emperor suspends trade Courtly families like the Fujiwara fear Chinese immigrants will take over gov’t Concerns the Japanese population will flee heir hard lives inn Japan In 1070 CE, trade opens again with Buddhist missionaries, courtiers and merchants join forces Ecological Imperialism Principle I State resources promote production Governmental policies encourage adoptions of new technologies in rice production and plowing Dry rice farming Barley as secondary crop Governmental policies encouragement to colonization of Honshu Islands (displaces indigenous Emishi) Principle II Terrorization Rule over LAND instead of People, systematic division of geography into territories to increase control. Gyoki Map (named for the Buddhist monk) From “Empire” to Shogunate Tale of Genji: court politics disdains the provinces By 1185, Taira d Minamoto clans use provincial wealth to replace the empire with a Shogunate Asian Policies of Ecological Imperialism Similar policies enacted in China, Korea and Japan Break up large landholdings and give to peasants Encourage settlement of new environments through punitive taxes or generous land grants (ex. Dry rice farming) Sponsor public works projects (Canals, bridges, etc.) In Chola Kingdom of S. Asia, kings abandon close ties to commerce in favor of promoting food production Ethiopia: form Axum to Lalibela Became landed empire Fall of Rome> trade decreases for 500 years, Adulis abandoned Axum overpopulated, environment fails after the 6 century King Lalibela 1100 CE, internal holy war resuscitates empire King Lalibela hews churches from solid rock Conquests against small Muslim and pagan states Solomonid Dynasty Replaced the Zagwe lineage of King Lalibela Claim descent from Queen of Sheba and King Solomon, and the old kings of Axum Keepers of the Ark of the Covenant In Sum Ecological Imperialism: intensive transformation of the environment to increase the power of a state Mayancity states Irrigation transforms dry Yucatan peninsula Ethiopia carving Christian monuments from solid rock enhances prestige of monarchy Japan intensive management of agricultural resources increases population and the authority of the state Ch. 11 3/2 The Crusades, and other Skirmishes in Asia Big Question: How did postclassical states organize their political systems? Can You: Compare Confucian, Islamic, and Christian responses to the immigrations and invasions of nonagricultural societies (herders and hunters) into their regions? Identify strengths and weaknesses of Byzantium’s postclassical political strategies? Explain the role of religion in the feudal system of Western Europe. What happened to the Tang? Emperors refused to name heirs to avoid assassination Bad alliances with Turkish Uighurs and others Uighurs kill bandits but then refuse to leave… Cf. the Germanic tribes in Rome 850950 the Ten Kingdoms period Huang Cho (a rebel) and Zhu Wen (his successor) most successful unifiers of the period Song Dynasty 960 1279 C.E. Founder: The Taizu Empire Three Barbarian Kingdoms Liao (Khitan) Xia (Tangut) Jurchen (Manchu) Song Prosperity Internal colonization/Pacification of Sichuan Province Cut down forests Plant tea and Mulberry bushes (for silk worms to eat) The “Eastern Capital” of Kaifeng Song China Two political programs in competition Ouyang Xiu, the Theorist Cultural appeasement to solve pastoralist threats Return to Confucian classics to fix internal issues Zhu Xi provides new secular synthesis of Confucianism Wang Anshi, he Empiricist Universal Conscription to fend off invaders Policy experimentation and data collection for internal issues Conscription: Military Service How do you define success? Through the political fortunes of the elite, or through demographic expansion of a culture and civilization? Seljuk Turks fracture Abbasid Caliphate + Turks become Sunni Muslim + Turks conquer Shi’a Fatimids = No more Islamic Empires, for now The “Barbarians” vs. The Byzantium “Commonwealth” Slavs in the Balkans > Christian Seljuk Turks in Anatolia > Muslim Basil II to the Rescue Cuts the “red tape” to increase revenues and assert authority he burns down an abusive nobleman’s estate w/o a trial Adds Bulgar Kingdom to the Empire But Seljuk’s conquest of Anatolia cripples the economy The Crusades Crusades were supposed to make pilgrimages to Jerusalem safe after Seljuk took it from the Fatimids Knights pursued CHIVALRY and acts of valor as an alternative to the holy life of monks… its suddenly “righteous” to be a bloodthirsty warlord Pope Urban II organized the First Crusade To combat “Muslims” To unify Europe (under him, of course) th Crushed by Saladin and other Turkish states by mid 12 century (a few Crusading kingdoms survived) Merchants in Venice financed 4 Crusade that sacked and weakened Byzantium so they could capture trade in the Eastern Mediterranean The Catholic Pope and Orthodox Patriarch also excommunicated each other in 1054 Excommunicate: to kick out of church for holding false beliefs Key Terms for Feudalism Lord Vassal Serf Bishop Priest Knight King Oath of Fealty a promise of loyalty given to a Lord in the presence of a Priest or Bishop Fief A piece of land given by a Lord to his Vassal in exchange for fealty Dual Hierarchies Pope King Bishop Lord Priest Knight Ch. 11 cont’d 3/4/16 Role of Church and State Byzantium Orthodox Christian Emperor appoints the Bishop In Western Europe Catholic Christian Pope coronate kings Pope and kings negotiate over who to appoint as bishops in each kingdom Coronate: to acknowledge the authority of a ruler by placing a crown on their head Where are all these barbarians coming from? The Steppes (i.e. Asia’s grasslands) Pastoral Economies/ Empires also pursuing internal colonization >more efficient use of resources increases population >more population stresses capacity of the environment >the grasslands throughout the world became “demographic pumps” periodically pushing through populations into tilling regions Did pastoralists practice Ecological Imperialism? In Sum Song China retreated to the south and west, capitulating to Barbarian kingdoms, but “conquering” them with culture The Islamic worlds “assimilated” the Turks who found Islam to be an effective means of unifying competing chiefdoms and and motivating warriors to battle Western Europeans played the role of barbarians in West Asia, focusing their political feuds for a time on capturing the wealth of Byzantium and Muslim states Byzantium held to the old style of centralization, and fell apart. Ch. 12 Mounted Armies and the Reign of Horses Learning Objectives: Explain why mounted armies were effective and favored in the postClassical era? Compare Mongol ruling strategies to Feudalism Identify economic and political consequences of the Mongol conquests? The Delhi Sultanate Founded by Iltutmish, a freed slave of Turks Hired Hindu princes as warlords instead of conquering them Core territory owned by him and staffed with a central administration Surrounding territories controlled by vassals given land in exchange for loyalty and assistance in wars, i.e. Feudalism Only unity during elaborate “oathing ceremonies” after successions Roving Capitols of the Solomonid Dynasty (ca. 12001800) A feudal system of politics, policed by regular rotation of the capital Pattern starts around 1200 CE, lasts for centuries Roving capitals prevents sieges by enemies Christian monasteries provide focus for Amharic identity Monastic orders encourage potential heirs to abandon politics in favor of Christian service as monks Rise of Mongols Nomadic societies included: Xiongnu (Huns), Turks, finally the Mongols get their turn What do these nomads share in common? Economy=Pastoralism, trade, raiding Mixed Pastoralism Self sufficiency and mobility Plurality of religious practice Shamanism Idea of Great Khan Gender Equality? Women were trusted advisors, but not warriors or rulers Temujin, called Genghis Khan (12061227) Unites Mongol tribes via diplomacy, civil war Rewarded merit instead of blood lineage Conquered peasants become full member of Mongol society (after killing their leaders) Mongol conquests and failures Failures 1260 Invasion of Egypt repelled by Mamluks at Ain Jalatu in Palestine 1274, 1281 Invasion of Japan failed b/c kamikaze winds (i.e. typhoon/hurricane) Delhi Sultanate in India insulated by Mongol attention to more profitable conquests Mamluks: Former Slave soldiers who rebelled against Saladin’s successors and took control of Egypt Conquest from Korea to Hungary, Moscow to Baghdad Largest landed “empire” in World History Relied on light cavalry (unarmored horses) and long range archers Masters of logistics and tactics Adapted quickly to siege warfare Often slaughtered survivors Why use Terror? Avoided costly battles later on Did not intend to use “Territory” for themselves Siege warfare: starving, flooding, or breaching fortified defenses such as walls, castles, palaces to force a surrender A Mongol empire? The Mongols did not establish a centralized state Mongol rulers focused on feasting, hunting, and disputes among Mongols Paid local elites to administer e.g. Grand Princes in Russia Tax Farming individuals pay for right to collect a certain amount of taxes, get to keep anything beyond their quota Four Khanates with allegiance to the “Great Khan? Mongol capitals at Karakorum and Khanbaliq (= Beijing) Trade under the Pax Magnolia Silk Road Pastorals and passports Marco Polo (12531324) Traveled to East and back (12711295) Influence on European attitudes towards the East William Rubruck Mission to learn and convert, 12531255 New Ideas Paper and paper money, gun powder, coal, movable type, passports, higher mathematics, etc. Yuan Dynasty in China, 12721368 Kubalai Khan, r. 1265 1294 New capital at Beijing (1265) Styles himself as a Chinese emperor Appointed Muslim advisors in China angering Chinese Confucians Consequences in China: Chinese trade and gov. return to Yellow River Prosperity in the cities, poverty in the countryside Extraction of wealth for benefit of Mongol khans Mongol Conquests in Russia Batu (r. 12401255) est. rule of “Golden Horde” over Russia Fall of Kiev, 1240 Hire Russian Princes as tax farmers Requires princes to make annual acts of humiliation at the Mongol encampment at Saray Consequences in Eastern Europe: Russian Orthodox Church increases influence by resisting Mongol influence Cooperate with Mongols counters expansion of Teutonic knights from Germany Serfdom increases but slave trade decreases in Eastern Europe IlKhanate Hulagu Khan Collapse of the Abbasid Caliphate, 1258 Marries daughters of local rulers to keep as hostages IlKhans of Persia become Shi’a Muslims in 1295 and then persecute those of other faiths Consequences in Persia Failed to conquer Egypt Revival of Shia Islam In Sum Mounted armies provided excellent mobility for relatively WEAK states like Ethiopia and Western Europe Mongol conquests were impressive but perhaps it's a stretch to call it an “empire” since there was no single centralized state Mongols renewed the crossfertilization of ideas between East and West Eurasia 3/7/16 Ch. 13 The Revenge of Nature The Black Death in Europe… th There was a climate change in the 14 century where the temperatures dropped What was the Black Death? A series of 14 century epidemics causing mass death What diseases caused the Black Death? Diseases evolve, so whatever it was, doesn't exist in the same form anymore Many diseases acting together Main culprit was genetically related to the bubonic plague (yersina pestis) Also, typhus, influenza, smallpox, and possibly anthrax What caused the plague? Climate change may have spurred evolution of new diseases Contact with large herd animals the foundation of pastoralists societies like the Mongols Random mutations allow diseases to pass to humans on occasions E.g. Bird flu, swine flu Why was the Black Death so widespread? Expanded and peaceful Silk Roads, plus Mongolian Postal System, aided rapid transmission of disease to populations w/out immunization Europe, Islamic World, and China Now denser than they had EVER been, Occupying more territory then EVER before, During expansion into previously unused territories (swamps, forests, high mountains) may have led to contact with new diseases Consequences in Europe Peasants: End of serfdom, End of labor services, Better wages in cities> urbanization increases Monarchs centralize their power Increased religious religiosity, but less confidence in the church Scapegoating of Jewish and Muslim communities, along with others, rises in Europe Scapegoating: Blaming an individual or group for all of the society’s problems Effects of the plague on China and the Islamic World China Social and political effects Massive population loss Loss of power for Mongols in China by 1368 Loss of the “mandate of heaven” Rise of the Ming Economic effects Temporary commercial and trade loss on the Silk Road Gov. lost revenues b/c of lost taxes Islamic World Social and Political effects Massive population loss never quite recovers Weakens IlKhan rule In Sum The plague brought disaster to many, but prosperity to the survivors The plague suggests the enduring vulnerability of humans’ position in the larger ecosystem
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