Persoanl Nutriention 4
Persoanl Nutriention 4 HND 101
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexis Notetaker on Monday February 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HND 101 at Southern Illinois University Carbondale taught by Afroza Hasin in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Personal Nutrition in Health Sciences at Southern Illinois University Carbondale.
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Date Created: 02/29/16
HND 4 Tuesday, February 16, 201612:59 PM The lipids (fats and oils) • Fats ○ Lipids that are solid at room temperature • Oils ○ Lipids that liquid at normal room temperature • Building Blocks ○ Triglycerides 1 glycerol & 3 fatty acids How your body uses fat: 1. Fuel ○ Natures saving account 2. "Carry" fat-soluble nutrients ○ Essential fatty acids ○ Fat-soluble vitamins A,D,E,&K 3. Insulating & protecting the body 4. Provides satiety 5. Cell membrane 6. Adds ○ Flavor ○ Texture Recommended intakes • Dietary goals for the U.S ○ 30% total kcalories 10% saturated fats 10 % monounsaturated fats 10% polyunsaturated fats • Polyunsaturated fats ○ Liquid at room temperature Stay liquid when chilled ○ 2 major categories Fats in foods • Essential fatty acids ○ Omega-3 fatty acids ○ Omega-6 fatty acids • Saturated fatty acids: ○ A fatty acid carrying the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms • Omega-3 fats ○ Heart-friendly Prevents blood clots Or keeps other fats from injuring artery walls ○ Source of essential fatty acids Linolenic acid Cold-water fish Canola oil,, soybeans, olive oils and nuts • Omega-6 fats ○ Heart-friendly Lowers cholesterol Lowers cholesterol ○ Source of essential fatty acids Linoleic acid Soybeans and canola oil • Monounsaturated fats ○ Liquid at room temperature Gets thicker when chilled ○ Most nuts and olive, canola, peanuts oils • Saturated fats ○ Solid at room temperature Gets harder when chilled ○ Animal foods ○ Plant foods Coconut oil Palm oil ○ Increases risk of heart disease Checking out cholesterol • Fat-like substance found only no animal foods ○ Cannot be used for energy No calories Functions of cholesterol • Estrogen and testosterone • Conversion of sunlight on skin to vitamin d • Major component of nerves and brain • Found in every cell Trans fats in food • Natural trans fats ○ Animal foods Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) ○ Provided health benefits • How does processing affect fats and lipids? Artificial trans fat • Hydrogenation • Chemical process ○ Lipids fats to solid fats ○ Trans fatty acids • Artificial trans fats ○ Ingredients lists Hydrogenated fat Hydrogenated oil Partially hydrogenated fats Fat substitutes • Simplesse ○ Low-calorie artificial fat ○ Milk protein and water ○ In frozen desserts • Olestra (or Olean) ○ Non-digestible (sugar and oil compound) How the body process lipids • Stomach ○ Mechanical digestion ○ Gastric acids and enzymes (lipase) ○ Gastric acids and enzymes (lipase) Tri-glycerides broken down into di-glycerides • Fat last to leave (2-4 hours) • Small intestine ○ Tri-glycerides and di-glycerides Fatty acids Glycerol □ With the help of bile • Liver and pancreas ○ Liver produces bile Stored in gallbladder Released into small intestine Emulsify fat ○ Pancreas digestive enzymes (lipase) ○ Released in the small intestine • Large intestine ○ Some fat and cholesterol trapped in fiber Eliminated from body What happens when we get too much or too little? • Not enough ○ Intolerable to coo temperatures ○ Children stop growing ○ Skin deteriorates ○ Women Stop menstruating Become infertile • Too much ○ Obesity Excessive accumulation of body fat ○ Heart disease Leading cause of death in U.S and Canada ○ Cancer Countries with high fat intakes have higher incidence of cancer A primer on heart disease • Heart disease ○ Aka coronary heart disease (cad) ○ Results when circulation of blood to parts f the heart is inadequate • Plaque ○ Deposits of cholesterol, other fats, calcium and cell materials in the lining of the inner walls of arteries Risk Factors(How many do we have?) • Uncontrollable ○ Blood relative • Age ○ Years or decades of poor diet • Gender ○ Men ○ Post-menopausal women 1.High serum cholesterol • 2 Major sources: ○ Manufactured in liver ○ Animal foods ○ Animal foods • Causes build up of plaque in arteries • Lipoprotein ○ Binds to cholesterol Transport it in the blood High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) • The "good" cholesterol ○ Takes cholesterol from blood and artery walls to liver Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) • The "bad" cholesterol ○ "Delivers" plaque to artery walls Ways to decrease bad cholesterol(LDL) • Eat foods that… ○ Is low in fat (saturated and trans fats) ○ Is high in soluble fiber ○ Use unsaturated fats instead of saturated fats ○ Exercise to trim excess body fat ○ Stop smoking Ways to increase the good cholesterol(HDL) • Regular physical activity • Maintain healthy weight • Reduce saturated and trans fats intake • Stop smoking 2. smoking • Reduces HDL-cholesterol • Increases blood clotting • Damage internal lining of blood vessels 3.High blood pressure • Can damage circulatory system • Pumping efficiency decreases 4.Type 2 diabetes • Increases risk for heart disease ○ 5 time higher for women ○ And 5.High saturated fat diet time higher • Foods high in saturated fats ○ Meats ○ Diary products ○ Palm oil ○ Coconut oil ○ Hydrogenated fats 6.Sedentary lifestyle • Benefits of physical activity ○ Promotes weight control ○ Protects against high blood pressure a nd diabetes ○ Increases HDL 7.Obesity • Promotes other risk factors ○ Low HDL -cholesterol ○ High blood pressure ○ Type 2 diabetes ○ Type 2 diabetes Other diet-heart disease connections • Antioxidant vitamins ○ Vitamins C,E, and beta-carotene low level may promote development of plaque • Excessive iron stores in men ○ Meats ○ Supplements ○ Fortified cereals