Economic Systems Cultural Anthropology 130
Economic Systems Cultural Anthropology 130 Anthropology 130
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melodi Harfouche on Monday February 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anthropology 130 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by De Pendry in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views.
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Date Created: 02/29/16
Economic Systems Production, Distribution, and Exchange Foraging or Hunting and Gathering Small bands o The bands can change depending on the season Dry season v. cold season In better climate conditions the groups get larger Mobile o Heavily kinship based Divisions of labor and prestige based on gender and age o A lot of people know how to do virtually every task, but there still are some divisions of labor Relatively egalitarian in terms of distribution of resources o Share your food w/the entire group and they will share with you Foraging Until 10,000 years ago, people were foragers o Before they started domesticating plants and animals Animal domestication and plant cultivation All modern foragers live in nationstates, interact with foodproducing neighbors and others o This already started happening historically Foragers of Today Arctic (Alaska, Canada, Siberia) Africa and Madagascar Islands near India Southeast Asia Malaysia, Philippines Australia South America, particularly Amazon River Basin Horticulture Plant cultivation Nonintensive use of: o Land o Labor o Capitol o Tools or Machinery Shifting cultivation Slash and burn cultivation o Slash out underbrush, burn it, and the ash from that serves as fertilizer Leaving fields fallow o Don’t plan anything on it o Let natural plants grow on it o Leave area not in use for ~15 years and move to a new plot Hoes, digging sticks Horticulturalists Fields not permanent property Villages (with “headmen”) Villages sometimes move Agriculture More labor intensive Uses land intensively, continuously Techniques and tools include: o Domesticated animals o Plows, harrows, carts, etc. o Irrigation o Terracing Greater yields per acre, dependable Agriculturalists Can support larger populations Villages and property more permanent Crop specialization Environmental effects (waste, diseases) Deforestation Governments to administer land and resources (e.g., water) Pastoralism Cattle, sheep, goats, camels, yak, reindeer, llamas, and alapacas North Africa, Middle East, Europe (Alps, Nordic countries), Asia, SubSaharan Africa, Andes in South America Nomadism: entire group moves o Requires political organization o Middle East and North Africa Transhumance: part of the group moves, while rest stay in home village o European Alps and Turkana of Uganda Industrialized Agriculture Greater mechanization Use of fertilizers and pesticides o Expensive, have to have a major capitol investment Seed hybridization o had to hybridize cotton to make it white standardization of crops animals raised in large groups special feeds and feeding pens mass slaughtering techniques Industrial Economies Increasingly industrialized agriculture: pushes people off land Industrialization of the production of foods, clothing, and household goods Production less kin based (consequence) Workers sell labor for cash Alienation: workers only involved in part of the production process, hence typically feel less pride or personal identification with final products. Consumers also do not associate products with the people who produced them Mode of Production Set of social relations through which labor is deployed to wrest energy from nature, by means of tools, skills, organization, and knowledge (Eric Wolf 1982) o Kin based o Foraging, horticulture, etc. o Feudalism, capitalism, communism Means of Production Land Labor Technology o Tools o Knowledge Trend has been towards increasing specialization Distribution and Exchange Market principle o Items bought and sold with an eye to maximizing profit Redistribution Reciprocity The Kula Ring Argonauts of the Western Pacific by Bronislaw Malinowski (1922) Triobriand Islands Trobriand Exchange Women of Value, Men of Renown: New Perspectives in Trobriand Exchange by Annette Weiner (1976)
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