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CPO2001, CH.7

by: Anna Cappelli

CPO2001, CH.7 CPO2001

Anna Cappelli
GPA 3.85

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Ch.7 in essentials of comparative politics "Political Violence"
Comparative Politics
Dr. Sebastian Elischer
Class Notes
Comparative Politics, Politics, political science
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anna Cappelli on Monday February 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CPO2001 at University of Florida taught by Dr. Sebastian Elischer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Comparative Politics in Political Science at University of Florida.


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Date Created: 02/29/16
Monday, February 29, 2016 Ch.7 Political Violence a phenomenon that operates beyond state sovereignty that seeks to achieve some political objective through the use of force. why political violence? institutional explanations - existing institutions may encourage violence or constrain human action, creating a violent backlash ( explain impact of fixed organizations and patterns) — presidentialism ideational explanations- focuses more of the rationale behind the violence; ideas may justify or promote the use of violence, not only the content of ideas matters but also their relation to the domestic political status quo — fundamentalism individual explanations - centers on those who carry the violence; personal motivations that lead people to contemplate and carry out violence towards political ends - 2 paths of study: 1) emphasizes psychological factors- conditions that draw individuals toward violence & 2)sees political violence as a rational act, carried out by those who believe it to be an effective political tool. — humiliation Comparing how they approach free will universal vs. particularistic explanations institutional tend to be particularistic and see people shaped by larger structures, individual centers of psychological attributes and focus solely on people, ideational explanations lie in the middle of both Forms revolution - a public seizure of the state in order to overturn the existing government and regime. involves pubic participation - the PUBLIC plays a role in seizing power people involved are working to gain control of state - not simply removing those in power but removing the entire regime seeks to fundamentally remake the institutions of politics and often social and economic institutions as well 1 Monday, February 29, 2016 not all are violent, but its hard to avoid violence dramatic change, mostly positive connotations phases/views of revolution 1) pre-world war II - studies of revolutionary events argued unsystematic and descriptive 2) post-world war II behavioral revolution - studies of disruptive change, such as modernization, as driving revolutionary action argued not clear why change or rising discontent leads to revolution in some cases and not others 3) 1970s-present- studies of domestic and international state power as providing the opening for revolution too focuses on institutions, to the neglect of ideas and individual actors relative deprivation model - revolutions are less function of specific conditions than of the gap between actual conditions and public expectations terrorism - use of violence by non state actors against civilians to achieve a political goal emphasizes that targets of violence are civilians contrary - guerrilla war involves non state combatants who largely accept traditional rules of war and target the state rather than civilians state-sponsored terrorism - states do sometimes sponsor non state terrorist groups as a means to extend their power by proxy, using terrorism as an instrument of foreign policy. Actor nihilism - a belief that all institutions and values are state non state essentially meaningless state war guerrilla war t g t human rights violations civilians (domestic) terrorism war crimes 2 (international) Monday, February 29, 2016 terrorism and revolution were initially linked together as a single process (origin: French revolution) some leaders (Maximilian de Robespierre) needed terror for revolution link between terrorism and revolution helps distinguish between terrorism and guerrilla war guerrilla war typically accepts their opponents are legitimate actors and want to be seen the same religious violence - as ideology has waned, religion has reemerges in the public realm. conditions that religion becomes a source of political violence? hostility to modernity modern world not only actively marginalizes, humiliates and denigrates the views of the believers but also seeks to exterminate the believers outright religion as a source of political violence is often connected to messianic, apocalyptic, and utopian beliefs. it is a mistake to confuse fundamentalism with violence regime type & terrorism authoritarian may foster terrorism, but the state can repress domestic terrorists; the state is unhindered by civil liberties result: limits terrorism but may be redirected outside of the country toward more vulnerable targets lower risk of terrorism democratic participatory institutions and civil liberties are likely to undercut public support for terrorism result: domestic terrorism less likely, but country may be a target of international terrorism generates in nondemocratic regimes moderate risk of terrorism 3 Monday, February 29, 2016 illiberal/ transitional weak state capacity instability, and limited democratic institutions may generate both opportunities and motivation fro terrorism result: terrorism more likely due to domestic and/or international support higher risk of terrorism 4


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