World History II Diamonds in the Rough Notes
World History II Diamonds in the Rough Notes HIST 1020
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Becky Stinchcomb on Monday February 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 at Auburn University taught by Cari Casteel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/29/16
Hist1020 February 23, 2016 Africa in the 1800s - Continent made up of hundreds of ethnic groups and languages - European trading posts only along the coasts Europeans in Africa before 1880s “The Dark Continent” - Europeans saw Africa as an unoccupied land waiting to be taken Why colonize Africa now? Quinine from the tropical cinchona tree: helps protect against malaria (does not cure, but is preventative) - Gin and TONIC (put quinine in tonic) “Whatever happens, we have got the Maxim gun, and they have not” As more and more people could go to Africa… the race to colonize became hostile Berlin Conference (1884- 5) - Convened by German leader Otto Van Bismarck - To prevent potential conflict, European nations met at the Berlin Conference in 1884- 1885 to lay down the rules for the division of Africa - They agreed that any country could claim land as long as they notified other nations and showed they could control the area Artificial Boundaries - The creation of these borders ad a negative impact on Africa’s political and social structures by either dividing groups that wanted to be together or combining ethnic groups that were enemies European Claims in Africa - Britain - France - Germany - Italy - Belgium - Portugal - Spain France - The territory that France controlled was as large as the United States - The largest of all colonial powers in Africa - Not as populated as other colonies because most of land was desert Britain - Britain’s claims ni Africa were second in size only to France, but included heavily populated areas with greater natural resources - Nile River and South Africa Germany - Included German East Africa and German Togoland Italy - The Italians took Somaliland in the horn of Africa and portions of North Africa Belgium - Belgium claimed a large portion of central Africa known as the Congo Spain and Portugal - The African claims of the Portuguese and Spain were minimal - Training land Berlin Conference (who is absent?) - Africa not invited; no African rulers invited to the Berlin Conference - African rulers get no say so in who gets to colonize them Motivations for Colonizing (3 Gs) - Civilizing Mission (God) - Competitive Nationalism (Glory) - Raw Materials (Gold) Civilizing Mission - “The Great WHITE Hope” - Europeans (and United States) see African people as a people who don’t know how to be civilized and have no intellectual capability because they have not had to use their brains for “4000 years” - “White Man’s Burden” Social Darwinism - Herbert Spencer (1820- 1903) - “Survival of the fittest” - Misinterpretation of Darwin’s studies to define humanity Scientific Racism - Term not coined until recently because people didn’t see their actions and words as racist until recently (relatively when speaking in historical terms) Competitive Nationalism - The Europeans believed that an empire was prof of a nation’s greatness - Each nation was determined to take as much territory as possible Raw Materials - Rubber - Diamonds - Gold British Africa Egypt - A shortcut to India and China - Suez Canal “The Jugular Vein of the British Empire” - 1875: Great Britain acquires (all of) Egyptian shares in canal (4,000,000 pounds) - 1882: Britain acquires control of the canal via military occupation British South Africa (B.S.A.C) Clash over South Africa - Africans, Dutch, British Zulus Fight the British - Zulu chief, Shaka, organized a highly disciplined army but still lost control of Southern African to the British because of the maxim gun Boers and British Settle the Cape - Boers settled the Cape of Good Hope - British and Boers disagreed on land claims Boer War (1899- 1902) - First Modern “total” war - Total War: war against armies and civilians - British burned Boer farms, imprisoned women and children in concentration camps - 1902: British established the Union of South Africa Cecil Rhodes - Said the British were the best and needed to civilize the African people - Owned DeBeers Diamond Company Cape- to- Cairo Railway Diamond Rush - Diederik and Johannes De Beer Star of South Africa (47 K diamond) By Rhodes death, DeBeers owned 90% of the diamond mines in the world - De Beers came up with the idea that men should buy a diamond ring to propose to their significant other’s #RhodesMustFall - Statue at University of Cape Town - Rhodes embodied racism and students want statue taken down because they don’t want to be reminded of how badly this man treated native people - April 9, 2015: statue taken down after a month of people protesting it
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