World History II Dr. Livingstone Notes
World History II Dr. Livingstone Notes HIST 1020
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Becky Stinchcomb on Monday February 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 at Auburn University taught by Cari Casteel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/29/16
Hist1020 February 25, 2016 David Livingstone (1813- 1873) - “I am prepared to go anywhere, provided it be forward” Livingstone’s Travels - Started in South Africa into heart of Africa through Botswana then Zimbabwe and finally Zambia - “Discovered” (finding that it exists) relics of African civilizations Relics of Great Zimbabwe - “Discovered” Mosi- oa- Tunya - Mosia- oa- Tunya (smoke that thunders) “It had never been seen before by European eyes; but scenes so lovely msut have been gazed upon by angels in their flight” Victoria Falls (Northern Zimbabwe) Henry Morton Stanley (1841- 1904) - New York Herold - Decides to go to Africa to try to find David Livingstone to make a good newspaper article - Comes across Livingstone (assumes that he would be the only random white person in Africa) “Dr. Livingstone, I presume?” The Congo Sparks Interest - Stanley set out to explore Africa and trace the Congo - King Leopold II of Belgium commissioned Stanley to obtain land in the Congo - Treaties are written in English to confuse the chiefs in Congo because they couldn’t read the treaties; gets them to sign an “x” on a line so that they are handing over all of the land to Belgium without knowing that they are giving away their land Europe is literally a family… (this is how Leopold got away with his shadiness) - Augusta Reuss (grandparent) Leopold I & Victoria (siblingsLeopold II & Victoria II (cousins) Berlin Conference - 1885: Congo Free State Leopold pledges to uphold the Berlin Conference Guarantees free trade with the colony Leopold’s Colony Rubber Harvesting Ivory “The Profit Imperative” - Needed cheap labor - Free trade was abandoned - But the colony was losing money… But… The Industrial Revolution Continues John Boyd Dunlap - 1888: Pneumatic Rubber - Pneumatic Tire (has air in it) More Rubber… Faster “The king must have rubber. The native must be forced to produce it.” Leopold’s Abuse of the Congo - Agents “encouraged” young men to work by holding their wives and children captive until each man’s quota was met - Many who resisted were killed on the spot Chicotte - Whips made from dried hippo hide with sharp edges The “Hand” Tax - Hands cut off as proof of killing or punishment; received payment for hands and “proved” that supervisors were not “wasting” bullets on game hunting - Used in instances when quota isn’t met or when slave being insubordinate Mutilated People in the Congo Free State Over 8 million victims (50% of the population) Reporting on the Conditions in the Congo George Washington Williams - Went to meet with Leopold to try to talk to him and get him to approve his travels to the Congo - Got in to the Congo and wrote about what he saw - Sent his findings to Leopold as well as to United States newspapers so that he can show out what is going on inside of the country that is contradictory to Leopold’s statements at the Berlin Conference - “An Open Letter to His Serene Majesty…” Congo Reform Association - Group of journalists and writers trying to bring attention to the atrocities in the Congo - E.D. Morel Heart of Darkness - Joseph Conrad - Written about his experiences in the Congo but disguised as fiction King Leopold’s Soliloquy - Mark Twain - All of the proceeds from the sale of the novel went to reform in the Congo Effect on the Congo - Public pressure eventually forced Leopold to sell the Congo Free State to The Belgian government - Became the Belgian Congo in 1908 - Belgian government ended the worst of the atrocities but still controlled the fate of the African natives “For their own good” Scramble for Africa - 90% of Africa is controlled by Europe - Britain: Egypt, Sudan, Nigeria, Uganda, South Africa - France: Algeria, Madagascar, Morocco - Germany: Cameroon, German SW Africa, German E. Africa - Belgium: Belgian Congo Tensions Rise in Europe… Kruger Telegram (1896) - From Germany to the Boers - Encouraging with support that they should separate from Britain As a result… Triple Entente - Britain, France, Russia Triple Alliance - Germany, Italy, Austria- Hungary Moroccan Crisis (1905- 1906) - Kaiser Whillem II goes to visit Morocco and offers to help the Moroccan people gain independence from France - France gets mad and threatens to start a war - German response is just that they want them to stop being so mean to African people and start to spread rumors to British to see if British and French will break up - Teddy Roosevelt persuaded Germany and France to meet to end their disagreement without war - Algeciras Conference Britain and France grow closer (Germany becomes more separate from Triple Entente) - Britain making Germans out to be terrible enemy -
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