Human Development Part 1
Human Development Part 1 PSYC-11762-001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Thompson on Monday February 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC-11762-001 at Kent State University taught by Robin L. Joynes in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 02/29/16
Human Development (Part 1) Thursday, February 25, 2016 2:06 PM Human Development This is the pattern of continuity and change in human capabilities that occurs throughout the lifespan o What stays the same and what shifts as you grow Children and adults are both studied What do developmental psychologists study? o Universal characteristics Stuff that everybody goes through Puberty in adolescents o Individual Variation Within a behavior what kind of universal variations can we see? Issues in developmental psychology o Nature vs. Nurture How much inherited characteristics influence our development Nature is your genetics How much do environmental factors influence our development Nurture is your environment If you are genetically predisposed to be shy and quiet but raised in a home where it is encouraged that you speak your mind and stand up for yourself you will be more a more vocal and outgoing person o Change vs. Stability Do our personal characteristics change as we age What changes over time and how does it change For example did your personality change as you grow up Do our personal characteristics remain stable throughout out lifespans Do they remain stable For example if someone says you had a shy temperament when you were born and that is why you are shy now can be seen as stability. o Stages vs. Continuity Do we see behavior change in discrete, sudden shifts as we age Sudden shifts Ex. Puberty Do we see behavior change slowly along a gradual continuum as we age Slow change, happens over a long period of time Two Development Research Designs o Cross sectional designs Several different age groups are studied at one time point Choose groups of people from different age groups and study a certain behavior o Longitudinal Designs One group of participants are studied over a long period of time Study one group, all the same age and you follow them all through their lifespan o Example: Cross-sectional Design Group 1: 5 yr olds Group 2: 10 yr olds Group 3: 15 yr olds Different children in each group All groups tested in 2012 More common Advantages Cheaper Quicker Disadvantages Less powerful Cohort effects Different generations are exposed to different things Only in cross sectional designs Longitudinal Design Test 1 in 2012: 5 yr olds Test 2 in 2017: 10 yr olds Test 3 in 2022: 15 yr olds Some participants at each test Entire study spans 10 years This is not done as frequently Advantages More powerful No cohort effects Disadvantages Time and money Attrition People will drop out Decide they no longer want to do it Three areas of Study in Development o Physical Development o Cognitive Development How you think and process information o Socioemotional Development How you relate to other people Prenatal Development o Development at infant beginning with conception and ending with birth o Three stages of Prenatal Development Germinal Period First 2 weeks after conceptions Massive cell division Ends with implantation into uterine wall Infant is called a zygote at the moment Just a cell Undifferentiated If at any time the giant ball of cell divides you get twins Monozygotic twins or identical twins Embryonic Period Week 3 and 6 after conception Massive cell differentiation Nutrients through placenta Cells began to form other parts Most of the parts of a person begin to develop at this point Baby is growing a lot at this point A lot of different things are happening Fetal Period Rest of pregnancy Start to end About 7.5 months Massive physical growth Ends at 36 to 40 weeks That’s what is considered full term Baby is not called a fetus All organs are small and premature at the start This is when they grow and develop A lot of physical growth These are not equal in length Teratogens o Any agent that can cause a birth defect Any agent that can cause a birth defect that gets through the placenta Can come from food bacteria, drugs and new Zika virus o Critical Periods Time when developing organs are most susceptible to birth defects First 2 weeks no worried Not getting nutrients through mom Central Nervous System at embryonic period into fetal period (Most susceptible) Heart during embryonic period (Most susceptible) Embryonic period is the most susceptible to teratogens (Critical Period) Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) o A cluster of problems that appear in the children at mothers who drink alcohol heavily during pregnancy Physical abnormalities Mental Abnormalities o It’s a spectrum It’s a range from not as noticeable to more serious to profound abnormalities
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