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Date Created: 06/03/14
PSYCH 108 COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY Spring Quarter 2014 512 Episodic Semantic Memory Distinction Tulving 1972 Episodic memory o A person s memory for specific events that were personally experienced Semantic memory o A mental thesaurus organized knowledge a person possesses about words and other verbal symbols Semantic memory allows us to o organize objects according to concepts o make inferences going beyond the information given 0 decide which objects are similar Defining AttributeTheory Concepts de ned by a list of attributes each attribute necessary and all jointly su icient boundaries clearly de ned all members of the concept are equally representative concepts organized hierarchically Properties of Defining Attributes Network Models Hierarchically organized o Nodes represent concepts 0 Pathways represent relationship between concepts o Spreading activation moves between nodes along pathways Economical o Properties do not need to be re represented for each concept Support 0 Sentence verification times consistent with some key predictions Faster to verify a Canary is a bird the A Canary breathes Problems o Difficulty with negation o Slower to negate Butter ies are birds then spiders are birds 0 Difficulty with typicality effects Problems with DefiningAttribute Theories All attributes are not equally salient All members of a category are not equally good examples Some categories do not have de ning attributes e g games Some categories are fuzzy eg bookends are office supplies and furniture Classical View Bruner 1956 Di iculzy with negation Slower to negate Butter ies are birds then spiders are birds Di iculty with Typicality e ects What does typicality predict Typicality ratings Order of listing members of a category Bluejay listed before Emu for Bird category Response time to verify An X is a C Yes to Are eagles birds is slower than Yes to Are sparrows birds Inferences Generalization from typical item to category is stronger than from atypical item to category All chickens sparrows on a certain island have a certain bacteria in their gut How likely is it that all birds do Higher probability estimates with sparrows than chickens Feature analytic approachSmith et al Emphasized semantic features defining features Birds lays eggs Characteristic features Birds y Two stage process o High or low degree of overlap make quick yes no judgment D Moderate consider defining features Accounts for o Typicality effects o Negation effects Prototype Theory Rosch 1971 A Concept is represented by a prototypical item central tendency Prototypes include characteristic features that are usually present not only necessary or su icient features Unclear cases handled An object may be equally close to two categories prototypes Typicality handled The typicality of an item is based on its proximity to the prototype Family resemblance The members of a category are overall similar but there may not be anything that they all have in common Prototypes Prototypes involved average extractions of multiple exemplars Posner amp Keele Exposed participants to multiple exemplars Prototypes never presented Nevertheless people reliably sorted prototypes into appropriate category Prototypes even generalize to seemingly rule based categories When asked about how good an example of oddness or evenness different numbers are reliable differences Prototypes Rosch 3 levels Superordinate o Very broad categories eg animal plant tool Basic level eg Cat tree saw o Levels at which categories are represented that contains the most useful information o Members tend to be similar in shape and how one interacts with them Subordinate e g Siamese cat elm ltacksaw o Highly specific example Support for Basic Level Categories Basic level names are used to identify objects 0 Ask people to look at pictures and identify objects o People prefer to use basic level names o People produce basic level names faster than superordinate or subordinate names Basic level names are more likely to produce the semantic priming e ect o Priming with basic level names is helpful o Priming with superordinate names is not helpful Di erent levels of categorization activate di erent regions of the brain o Superordinate terms are more likely than basic level terms to activate part of the prefrontal cortex o Subordinate terms are more likely than basic level terms to activate part of the parietal region Caricatures Caricatures exaggerate distinctive features of an object o Caricatures are more readily recognized than actual pictures o Categories are often times represented by caricatures rather than prototypes because caricatures better discriminate between categories Conclusions About the Prototype Approach Advantages o can account for our ability to form concepts for groups that are loosely structured o can be applied to social relationships inanimate objects nonsocial categories Problems o concepts can be unstable and variable eg prototype ratings can shift o We often do store specific information about individual examples of a category not just prototypes Exemplar theory A Concept is simply represented by all of the members exemplars that are in the concept o Defining attribute Bird Flying animal with beak that lays eggs D Prototype Bird sparrow like thing o Exemplar Bird sparrow emu chicken bluejay eagle o Does not throw out instance information as does prototype theory Uses the total similarity of an object to all members of the category to determine if the object belongs in the category Exemplar and prototype theories can both account for the random dot pattern experiment Prototype is better categorized than new distortions even though prototype was never seen during training Categorization accuracy decreases as item moves further away from prototype Exemplar theory Ad hoc categories 0 People can create categories for items unlikely to have been stored together as such 0 objects that serve as platforms Heit and Barsalou I 996 Q When asked a question about a category people don39t just consider prototypes they also include information about less typical examples of the category Comparing the Exemplar Approach with the Prototype Approach The exemplar approach may be more suitable for categories with relatively few members so as not to overwhelm semantic memory The prototype approach may be more suitable for categories with numerous members Both approaches may coexist 0 different hemispheres o left prototypes o right eXemplars Schemas and Scripts Schema generalized knowledge about a situation an event or a person Schema theories are especially helpful when psychologists try to explain how people process complex situations and events Schema theories propose that people encode quotgenericquot information about a situation then use this information to understand and remember new examples of the schema quotThis is just like what happened when quot Bartlett Introduced notion of schemas Knowledge structure that in uences how one interprets and remembers a situation War of the Ghosts Serial Reproduction of The War of the Ghosts Bartlett s Analysis of the Changes The story became shorter and more coherent o No trace of an odd or supernatural element is left We have a perfectly straightforward story of a fight and a death Achieved by Omissions ghosts omitted early the Wound became a matter of esh not spirit Rationalization growing coherence among parts Transformational of details into more familiar and conventional Changing order of events Impact of Schemas on memory for forms verbal labels o Carmichael Hogan and Waters o Peoples memories change to fit labels Recall of Office Material highly likely to recall objects consistent with quotojfice schemaquot quotrememberedquot items that were not in the room but were consistent with quotojfice schema Did not remember inconsistent items D Wine bottle General Conclusions about Schemas and Memory Selection If the information describes a minor event and time is limited people tend to remember information accurately when it is consistent with a schema e g the desk and the chair in the ojfice If the information describes a minor event and time is limited people do not remember information that is inconsistent with the schema e g the wine bottle and the picnic basket When the information describes a major event that is inconsistent with the standard schema people are likely to remember that event Big picture conclusions about general knowledge There are multiple ways that people can represent general knowledge Categories o Defining features o Prototypes o Exemplars Evidence of use of all three types Schemas general knowledge structures help us to organize new information o Can be helpful o Can also produce distortions 514 Language Why is Language Important Represents unique form of abstraction in human species Language in uences perception and memory Relevant to the form and manner of information storage Relevance to thinking and problemsolving is unquestioned Chief means of human communication A Caution Psycholinguistics Is EnglishCentered As many as 7000 spoken languages languages di er in terms of o the meaning of changes in pitch 0 use of passive Voice 0 Whether nouns have grammatical gender D brain processing English as quotoutlier language 0 relatively simple grammar o many more irregular pronunciations than other major World languages Linguistic Relativity Sapir Whorf hypothesis o Language determines or in uences thinking Three versions 0 Strong hypothesis I Language determines thinking 0 Weak hypothesis I Language in uences perception o Weakest hypothesis I Language in uences memory Color Vocabulary Some languages have thousands of color words others a handful People might di erentiate and remember colors to a greater or lesser extent depending on the resources of the language that they have learnt Early Evidence for Linguistic Relativity Brown and Lenneberg I 954 o They found a correlation between nameability and memory accuracy o easy to name colors were more accurately remembered than hard to name Early Evidence against linguistic relativity Heider 1972 o Tested the Dani a group living in the New Guinea highlands D The Dani have two color words I one meaning dark I one meaning light I She gave them Brown and Lenneberg s 1954 color memory test Colors that were easy to name in English and had been better remembered by Brown and Lenneberg s subjects turned out to be better remembered by the Dani as well Heider s interpretation Certain colors are inherently more distinguishable focal Perception in uences thought rather than though in uencing perception More recent evidence in favor of linguistic relativism Berinmo and English di er in their ability to remember colors English and Berinmo have different color categories Task Present a color delay show two possible colors subjects task is to choose the previously presented color English best at task when one color is blue and the other is green Berinmo best at task when one color is wor and the other is nol Linguistic relativity and counting Chinese numerical names are compatible with the traditional 1 0base numeration system o spoken numbers correspond exactly to their written equivalent o 15 is spoken as quotten fivequot and 57 as quotfive ten sevenquot Most European systems of number words are irregular up to I 00 Chinese children count earlier than American children in part because Chinese numbers are more systematic Similarity Judgments Mass nouns any quantity of it is treated as an undi erentiated unit 0 Water Count nouns can be counted 0 Chair Mayans similarity judgments are more influenced by material as appropriate for mass nouns rather than shape as appropriate for count nouns Evaluation of linguistic relativity Harley 2001 p 87 There is now a considerable amount of evidence suggesting that linguistic factors can affect cognitive processes Even colour perception and memory show some influence of language The evidence supports the weak and the weakest versions Weak hypothesis 0 Language in uences perception Weakest hypothesis 0 Language in uences memory Key Terminology Phonology the way sounds function in the language basic unit phoneme 0 single speech sound 0 English has about 45 9 make up half our words 0 dimensions voiced a unvoiced s fricatives sh plosives t place of articulation palate v lips Morphology study of the internal structure of words basic unit morpheme o smallest unit of meaning words parts of words etc 0 free eg old the vs bound eg er ist 0 over 100000 words formed by morpheme combinations Semantics study of meaning 0 link between language and concepts 0 denotation vs connotation e g heart Syntax the grammatical rules that govern how words can be combined into sentences Pragmatics knowledge of social rules that underlie language Chomsky39s Approach Psycholinguistics Language abilities can be explained in terms of a complex system of rules and principles represented in the minds of language users Humans have an innate understanding of the abstract principles of language Language learning involves the more super cial characteristics of a particular language Language is modular language is special not processed the same as other cognitive tasks Deep VS Surface Structure Surface structure o The words that are actually spoken or written Deep structure o The underlying more abstract meaning of a sentence Transformational Rules o Rules people use to convert deep structure into surface structure Same deep structure di erent surface structure o Sara threw the ball active voice o The ball was thrown by Sara passive voice Same surface structure di erent deep structure o Ambiguous sentences They are cooking apples The lamb is too hot to eat Reactions to Chomsky Extremely in uential approach that continues to be explored and developed Some aspects of theory not supported o People do not take longer to process sentences that require numerous transformations Development of Psycholinguistic Theories that Emphasize Meaning Cognitivefunctional approach Tomasello The function of human language in everyday life is to communicate meaning to other individuals Cognitive processes are intertwined with language comprehension and production Children use exible strategies to create increasingly complex language Factors Affecting Comprehension Negatives o Negative statements require more processing time than affirmative statements o Affirmative statements produce fewer errors o Multiple negatives decrease performance The Passive Voice o The active form of a sentence is easier to understand than the passive form o Sara threw the ball active voice o The ball was thrown by Sara passive voice Ambiguity o He gave her cat food People pause longer when they are processing an ambiguous word When people encounter a potential ambiguity the activation builds up for all the well known meanings of the ambiguous item Complex Syntax 0 Daddy What did you bring that book that I don t Want to be read to out of up for o di icult to understand 0 nested structure taxes working memory The quotGoodEnoughquot Approach to Language Comprehension People read quickly and they try to grasp the general meaning of a sentence Knowledge of language typically leads to an accurate interpretation This strategy can sometimes lead to errors in language comprehension Extreme Example of Good enough 0 I cdn39uolt blveiee taht I cluod aulaclty uesdnatnrd waht I was rdanieg Neurolinguistics The discipline that examines how the brain processes language Three examples 0 Aphasia Difficulty communicating caused by damage to speech areas 0 Hemispheric specialization differential cognitive processing of two hemispheres 0 Impact of mirror neurons on comprehension WERNICKE S APHASIA grammar is right but content is often meaningless Patient attempting to explain a picture of a child taking a cookie as a woman spills water Uh Well this is the the of this This and this and this and this These things going in there like that This is things here This one here these two things here And the other one here back in this one this one look at this one BROCA S APHASIA Meaning without grammarBroca s aphasia Connector words are gone Cinderellapoorum 39dopted herscrubbed floor um tidypoor um39doptedSi sisters and motherball Ball prince um shoe Hemispheric Specialization Left hemisphere 0 Superior language abilities Right Hemisphere o Modest language skills 0 Superior at Metaphor Humor Emotional tone Remote associates Beeman s Theory of Asymmetric dynamic semantic fields Left Hemisphere o relatively finer coding Better selection o Better at detecting building o Close connections Right Hemisphere o Relatively coarser coding Weaker activation o Better at detecting building distant unusual connections How the Mirror System Can Facilitate Communication mirror system a network of neurons in the brain s motor cortex that are activated when you watch someone perform an action Rizzolatti and colleague o monkeys Watching a researcher break open a peanut o measure responses of single neurons o Monkeys responses While Watching were similar to when the monkeys themselves broke open a peanut How the Mirror System Can Facilitate Communication Calvo Merino and colleagues 2005 Collected 4RI data for experts in classical ballet or martial arts as they watched videos of classical ballet vs martial arts 4RIs for experts in classical ballet showed signi cantly greater activation in the motor cortex areas relevant to ballet movements and relatively little activation in the areas relevant to martial arts Individuals who were experts in martial arts showed the reverse activation pattern Experts can grasp meaning by watching another person when they have fully developed the appropriate motor vocabulary Language is not limited to spoken and written messages physical actions also important Sound based language is not the only way people communicate Mirror neurons and Language we can also comprehend messages from the actions of other people Mirror neurons may be especially active when we try to listen to someone talking in a noisy setting a setting where we really need assistance Eye fixations window into the mind of the reader People s eye xations on words corresponds to the amount of time they spend processing each word A ected by 0 Word frequency 0 Ambiguous pronoun 0 End of sentence Wrap up 0 Dyslexia o Mind wandering Fixation data from a normal PP and a dyslexic Dave reader Numbers immediately below the dots are the sequence of eye movements and the lower numbers are fixation times Eye tracking and mindwandering while reading Reichle Reineberg amp Schooler 2010 Psychological Science Do gaze durations di er as a function of whether people are on vs o task while reading Prediction If people are not processing meaning gaze duration should be less affected by Word frequency and clause endings when off task relative to on Provides opportunity for further convergence between first person reports of mind Wandering and behavior Dual route approach to reading How do we look at a pattern of letters and actually recognize that word dualroute approach to reading skilled readers employ both 0 a direct access route recognize Word directly through vision 0 indirect access route recognize Word by first sounding out the Word Flexible 0 characteristics of the reading material determine whether access is indirect or direct 0 characteristics of the reader also determine Whether access is indirect or direct eg beginning vs advanced readers poor vs good readers consistent with brainimaging research Implications for Teaching Reading to Children Phonics approach indirect access 0 Readers recognize Words by trying to pronounce the individual letters in the Word quotsound it outquot argues that speech sound is a necessary intermediate step in reading emphasizes developing children39s awareness of phonemes Evidence 0 Phonics training helps children who have reading problems Wholeword approach direct access 0 argues readers can directly connect the Written Word as an entire unit with the meaning that this word represents o argues that children should not learn to emphasize the Way a Word sounds o emphasizes context within a sentences Problem 0 Even skilled adult readers achieve only about 25 accuracy when they look at an incomplete sentence and guess which word is missing 0 Was large debate in Education Some favored Whole Word others favored phonics Resolution 0 Most educators and researchers support some sort of compromise o All students should learn phonics 0 Reading instruction should emphasize meaning 0 Reading instruction should be enjoyable to increase children39s enthusiasm about learning to read Understanding Discourse Discourse o interrelated language units larger than a sentence o Frederick Bartlett39s research o People s recall of stories becomes more consistent with their schemas after a long delay o importance of context general background knowledge expertise scripts and schemas o interaction of bottom up and topdown processing o inferences Forming an Integrated Representation of the Text How do we gather information together and remember the various concepts to form a cohesive and memorable message Theory of mind In everyday life people try to figure out the mental state of other people in their lives Understanding Discourse Forming an Integrated Representation of the Text o Skilled readers o frequently organize and integrate information into a cohesive story 0 use mental models during reading eg mental map of locations described in Writing make inferences going beyond the information given Drawing Inferences During Reading Factors That Encourage Inferences working memory capacity Expertise metacomprehension skills Teaching Metacomprehension Skills Meta comprehension your thoughts about comprehension o Most young children do not have the appropriate cognitive skills for metacomprehension Teaching Metacomprehension Skills o Contemplate your own reading strategies o consider relevant background knowledge o reading every sentence vs skimming o monitor your understanding o notice when your mind wanders Teaching Metacomprehension Skills o Teach students to o think out loud o summarize o make predictions about possible outcomes gtgt describe puzzling sections o question the author Big Picture Conclusions About Language Di erent language in uences how we think to some degree The manner in which language is presented can influence how well we understand it A variety of brain regions provide distinct contributions to the processing of language Learning to read benefits from phonetics Developing meta comprehension strategies can enhance comprehension
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