2. Age and Sex Determination
2. Age and Sex Determination ANTH 0538
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Pampino on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 0538 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Denis Sharapov in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see Archaeologist Looks at Death in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 09/08/15
Lecture 2 Age Sex September 8 2015 0 Any notes that are underlined are the fill in the blank answers on the lecture notes 0 Titles that are bolded and underlined are the lecture subject 0 First black bulletpoints are the slide title 0 Hepfu anatomy pictures after the lecture notes Review of last week 0 Earliest human burials sites 0 Ethiopia bodo O Bilzingsliben Germany 0 Atapueraca Spain 0 Gran dolina Sima del elefante Lima de los huesos 0 Evidence of burial 0 Cut marks on skull Ethnography I Present and historical groups cannibalize their dead Mostly ritual act and associated with burials O Burial of various age ranges Burial site was intentional lima de los huesos act by other humans 0 What time period do these sites date to 0 Lower Paleolithic 12 mya 200kya 0 Example of test Q 0 What specie were the remains form the la sima de los huesos arch site in atapueruca spain attributed to 0 H spain h heidlebergensis neanderthalensis erectus or none of the above Cont of last lecture Catastrophic v attritional age profiles 0 Graph mortality profile form Mesolithic warmer climate sedentary life growth in cultureNeolithic domestication of plantsanimals Netherlands 0 Demographic profiles deaths are favoring middle age individuals matches de Los huesos Age and Sex 0 Middle Paleolithic ZOO40 kyagt tools pre shape the tool then strike off unnecessary parts Great variation in tools Mousterian tech 0 Associated with Homo neanderthalensis 0 Very different species from what we seen before physical and mental middle east to Europe 0 Morphologically robust strongly built similar to javelin throwers of present time 0 Tons of meat in their diet chemical signatures are close to wolffoxes at that time 0 Burials no unequivocal consensus 0 Old argument in arch lit evidence that could be interpreted either way 0 La Chappelle aux saints 39 Yes they buried the dead 0 Depression that was not natural dug out by someone 0 Bones showed no signs of weatheringanimal presence in good condition 0 Major lines of argument for burial sites 0 Most sites date to 60 50 kya or younger 0 Interesting fact earliest Neanderthal bones date around 200 kya but burials found around 60 kya 39 After homo sapiens appeared around 200 100kya Lecture 2 Age Sex September 8 2015 I Did they learn it from us 0 Pros and cons chart on main arguments for burial sites Pros Cons Sites 30 some cases that produced evidence Small proportion 10 Pearson 7 Site examples La of burial out of a few hundred Pettit Chapelle aus Saints France Kebara Israel Presence of quotgraves pitsquot some pits are Pitts are small and shallow Eg 27quot in Site examples La intentional Parts were missing but not diameter 15 deep Some pits are Chapelle aus Saints all natural Body was exposed body parts France Kebara Israel were missing Presence of flower pollen Was likely brought in by Persian jird shanidar Iraq Pristine condition of bones compared Rock falls natural processes quotceiling ferrasie france to those of other animals collapsequot rapid sedimentary growth Body position ie sleeping posture Buried by rock falls natural death La moustier france while sleeping strong line of evidence Doubt that they had that kind of social memory Repeated use of same sites eg over 15 They repeatedly occupied same caves Shanidar iraq kya ritual useburial spot for thousands of years Great living areas quotGrave goodsquot such as animal bones s maxilla of red deer a burial good Amud irael and lithic tools Usually from an upper Worked stone How do you define a part of the body of animal located at quotgrave goodquot back then the head or pelvis O Sima de los palomas Spain burial example 0 Michael Walker I Found 300 Neanderthals bones I 3 individuals stood out position of the dead 0 Sleeping fetal position gt buried 0 Female fetal I Found with panther paw poaching I not the greatest explanation 0 Upper Paleolithic 40 60 kya O Lithic tech complex stone tools wide menu of diff tools and weapons combining different materials 0 H sapiens begin to enter W Europe 0 quotcultural explosionquot quothuman revolutionquot quotcreative explosion etc I Art cave drawings symbolism figurines music made from bones clothingtailoring instead of hides domestication first was the canine genetic estimation and site burials growth in culture I Knew they wore clothes louse I Traced the genetic make up of louse species Dated around that time Louse that lived on humans had to come from tight fitting clothes 0 Main point Start to see main burials that we clearly id as one I Deep pit burial goods ritual I Mystery ends on the q of when burial started I Example I Sungir Russia Lecture 2 Age Sex September 8 2015 28kya 0 Grave pits large and deep with grave goods 0 Hundreds of animal teeth 0 Mammoth tusk lances Femur artifact covered in ochre and laid next to body I Ranked Societies Dedication to the ivory bead details over 10000 hrs to make special person to have such a detailed wardrobe 0 The two Teens with tons of goods may indicate came from a higher rank line 0 Anatomy 0 Basic bone knowledge 0 Anatomical positions 0 Axial and appendicular skeleton 0 Physical parameters of ancient people 0 Biological sex I Malefemalesintersex rare condition I Nothing to do with genderculturally created biological structure 0 Biological sex is not the same as gender I Burial items may have different meaning to them I Sexual dimorphism phenotypic differences bw male and females of the same species Expressed all through out the body I Humans are 98 similar sometimes harder to tell apart I They say that the farther back in history you go the more sexual dimorphism was expressed but don t know based on low sample size discovered I All traits are continuousvaries within a person 0 Diagnostic parts of human skeleton most expression O 1 Pelvis I Made up of three bones ischium pelvic symphysis and ilium All attached to the sacrum I Overall shape I specific ontological traits that could be diagnostic I Characteristics General rules all characteristics center around childbirth 0 female pelvis is shorter and broader 0 Females pelvis has a wider subpubic angle 0 Female pelvis has rounder and wider pelvic inlet 0 2 Skull cranium I If have skull so many bones that can indicate sex that sometimes don t need the rest of the body I General shape if you have all of the skull I specific traits I Characteristics I Females have smaller and smoother skulls I Females have rounded eye sockets I Female have smaller mastoid process more pronounced in males I Nuchal crest are more pronounced in males I Supraorbital margin is sharper in females I Supra orbital ridge in males are more defined I Mental eminencechin more defined in males 0 3 Long bones I Measurements that correspond to male and female ratios I Areas measured 0 Heads of bones 0 Diameter Lecture 2 Age Sex September 8 2015 39 Typically males have longer and more robust bones Pictures 0 Basicanatomy 0 Red Axial 0 Blue appendicular limbs THE AXIAL SKELETON THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON 333 Gaving Scapula Sunburn Spine b vertebrae a pelvic girdle Radius Una Coccyx c H Metampd Hwahnge Fanm Pater Tibia Fibula Thral Metatarsal Phahnge Pelvis and male V female Ilium Anterior View Superior View Inferior view isterior mac creSt c quot 39 1 perior V p i Ic spine Anterior superii I 39 A iliac spine FEMALE 1 g FStfar39or pelvis quot 39 Pelvic erlor Anterior inferiOi f 1 quot Outlet 5 39 ic splne iliac spine 39 quot f eater sciatic O tch Acetabulum gt 900 mi DOdV Body of pubis hial spine I Pubis ha MALE Deros39ty Inferior ramus pelvis mum of pubis Obturator hial ramus foramen 1 Copyright 2009 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Sacrum tilted forward Ilia closer together Lecture 2 Age Sex September 8 2015 Skull dimorphism 0 Example of dimorphic variations 1 more female 3 neutral 5 more male MJCHM CREST MASTOID PROCESS I 2 3 4 S SUPRAORBIYAL MARGIN L lt44 SUPRAORBITAL RIDGEGWELLA wwwww Lecture 2 Age Sex September 8 2015 Long bone osteological measurement features for sex determination Male and Female Osleologlcal Fealures Used tor Sex Poms m mm Female pattern Cranium sanctum m m melanomawon m and Shotthqu W an Wmmmh may Mum Mumnah mww annotating Humans Whoamama Wm 0m manuam m M W VMMWW W m mjm Mounties m M W cm 02m mm Mahmud mmme In Commandant nun do WWW and man uted mm MNV but pommum branded and Steam mumum WM 00