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HA & P Chapter 3 Lesson 4 Notes

by: Kelsie Carter

HA & P Chapter 3 Lesson 4 Notes Bio 2010

Kelsie Carter

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About this Document

These notes cover chapter 3 lesson 4
Human Anatomy and Physiology
Sabine Allenspach
Class Notes
humans, anatomy, cells, Processes, Mitochondria, organelles, cytoplasm, Diffusion, Osmosis, nucleus
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelsie Carter on Monday February 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 2010 at University of Colorado Colorado Springs taught by Sabine Allenspach in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology in Biology at University of Colorado Colorado Springs.


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Date Created: 02/29/16
 An Introduction to Cells 1. a cell is the basic, living, structural and functional unit of the body 2. sex cells (germ cells) A. reproductive cells B. spermozoa C. oocyte 3. somatic cells A. soma=body B. all cells except sex cells  Plasma Membrane 1. extracellular fluid (interstitial fluid) A. a watery medium that surrounds a cell B. plasma membrane (cell membrane) a. function: separates cytoplasm from extra cellular fluid C. cytoplasm a. made of organelles (intercellular organelles) b. cytosole- intercellular fluid 2. functions of the plasma membrane A. physical isolation a. barrier for protection B. regulation of exchange with the environment a. all ions and water to exit C. sensitivity to the environment a. receives signals from other cells D. structural support a. anchors cells and tissues 3. membrane lipids A. phospholipids bilayer a. hyrdophillic heads: toward watery environment b. hydrophobic fatty-acid tails: inside the membrane, can isolate c. barrier to ions and water- soluble compounds: hydrophobic and hydrophilic 4. membrane proteins A. integral proteins a. channel or carrier protein, within the membrane B. peripheral proteins a. inner or outer surface C. anchoring proteins (stabilizers) a. attach to inside or outside structures, also stabilizes D. recognition proteins (identifiers) a. identify if a cell is normal or abnormal E. enzymes a. catalyze reactions F. receptor proteins a. find and respond to ligands G. carrier proteins a. integral protein, which transports solutes through the membrane H. channels a. integral protein, which regulates water flow and proteins through the membrane 5. membrane carbohydrates A. proteoglycans, glycoproteins, and glycolipids a. extend outside the cell membrane b. form sticky (sugar-coat) – glycocalyx B. functions of the glycocalyx a. lubrication/ protection b. anchoring and locomotion c. binding d. recognition (immune response)  Organelles and the Cytoplasm 1. cytoplasm A. all materials inside the cell and outside the nucleus a. cytosol (intracellular fluid) I. composed of dissolved nutrients, ions, proteins and waste II. high potassium III. low sodium IV. high in protein and carbohydrates b. organelles I. have specific functions 2. nonmembranous organelles A. no membrane- direct contact with cytosol a. cytoskeleton, no membrane b. microvilli c. centrioles d. cilia e. ribosomes f. proteasomes 3. the cytoskeleton A. structural proteins for shape and strength a. microfilaments b. intermediate filaments c. microtubules 4. microfilaments A. made of Actin (which make I bands) B. provide additional mechanical strength C. interact with proteins for consistency D. pair with thick filaments of myosin for muscle movement 5. intermediate filaments A. are the most durable fibers (collagen) B. strengthen cell and maintain shape C. stabilize organelles D. stabilize cell position 6. microtubules A. large, hollow tubes of tubulin protein B. attach to centrosome C. strengthen cell and anchor organelles D. form spindle apparatus 7. microvilli A. function: increase surface area for absorption B. attach to cytoskeleton 8. centrioles and centrosome A. centrioles: form spindle apparatus during cell division B. centrosome: made of cytoplasm around centrioles 9. cilia 10. ribosomes A. build polypeptides in protein synthesis B. two types: made up of RNA and associated proteins a. free ribosomes: in ctyplasm, manufacture proteins for the cell b. fixed ribosomes: attached to the ER, manufacture proteins for secretion 11. proteasomes A. contains proteolytic enzymes B. remove proteins from cytoplasm 12. membranous organelles A. organelles are covered by a phospholipid membrane- isolated from the cytosol a. ER b. golgi apparatus c. lysosomes d. peroxisomes e .mitochondria 13. endoplasmic reticulum A. cisternae: storage chambers in the membrane of the ER B. smooth endoplasmic reticulum a. no ribosomes attached b. synthesizes lipids and carbohydrates I. phospholipids II. cholesterol III. steroid hormones (cholesterol, estrogen, cortisol) IV. glycerides (in liver and fat cells) V. glycogen (in muscles, polysaccharides) C. rough endoplasmic reticulum a. surface covered with ribosomes I. active in protein and glycoprotein synthesis II. folds polypeptide structure in ER (cisternae) 14. golgi apparatus A. consist of 4-6 stacked, flattened membranous sacs referred to as cis, medial, and trans regions B. functions: a. modifies and packages secretions so they can be released exocytotically from cell I. hormones II. enzymes b. renewal and modification of plasma membrane c. packages special enzymes in vesicles to be used in cytoplasm 15. lysosomes A. powerful enzyme-containing vesicles B. primary lysosome: formed by golgi and are inactive enzymes C. secondary lysosome: formed by fusing to damaged organelles and enzymes are activated D. functions: both destroy cells a. autography: intercellular digestion of worn out organelles b. autolysis: self-destruction of damaged cells 16. peroxisomes A. are enzyme-containing vesicles a. break down fatty acids, organic compounds b. produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) > free radicals c. catalase: an enzyme, that breaks down hydrogen peroxide into H and O, it can create free radicals (which can cause damage) d. replicates by division e. antioxidants repair damage from free radicals (non-paired electrons) 17. mitochondria A. have smooth outer membrane and inner membrane with numerous folds (cristae) B. matrix- fluid around cristae 18. mitochondrial energy production A. glycosis: break down of glucose to pyruvate a. 2 ATP, produced in cytosol B. citric acid cycle: a. 2 ATP, break down glucose with 2 cycles C. electron transport chain a. 34 ATP  Cell Nucleus 1. nucleus- largest organelle, control center, brain of the cell A. nuclear envelope: double membrane around the nucleus B. perinuclear space: area between 2 layers of the envelope C. nuclear pores: passage ways from communication to nucleus 2. contents of the nucleus A. nucleoplasm: fluid around the nucleus, contains ions, enzymes, RNA, and nucleotides B. nuclear matrix: support nuclear filaments C. nucleolus: protein production, made of RNA D. DNA a. chromatin: loosely coiled DNA (cells not dividing) b. chromosomes: tightly coiled DNA (cells dividing) c. nucleosomes: DNA coiled around histones  Diffusion and Osmosis 1.membrane transport A. transport through a plasma membrane can be: a. active: requires energy b. passive: no energy required B. diffusion a. passive b. all molecules in motion, mixing of a solution C. carrier-mediated transport a. active or passive D. vesicular transport a. active, materials move in and out of the cell 2. diffusion across plasma membrane A. simple diffusion a. net movement of ions from an area of high concentration to lower concentration until the equilibrium is established b. lipid-soluble compounds (alcohols, fatty acids, and steroids) c. dissolved gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) d. water molecules B. channel-mediated diffusion a. water moves freely between membranes, cytosol or fluid C. factors in channel-mediated diffusion a. size of molecule b. charge of the ion c. leak channels: remain open at all times, they allow ions to go in and out 3. osmosis A. movement of water through selectively permeable membrane 4. osmolarity or osmotic concentration A. the osmotic effect of a solute on a cell a. isotonic: solution doesn’t cause osmotic flow, blood cells appear normal b. hypotonic: less solutes, loose water through osmosis, blood cells swell c. hypertonic: more solute, gain water by osmosis, cause the blood sells to shrivel up  Carriers and Vesicles 1. carrier- mediated transport A. facilitated diffusion a. passive: no energy needed b. carrier proteins transport molecules too large to fit through the channel; proteins (glucose, amino acids) I. molecule binds to receptor site on carrier protein II. protein changes shape, molecule passes through III. receptor site is specific to certain molecules B. active transport protein a. move substrates against concentration gradient b. energy required I. ion pumps move ions II. exchange pump: counter transports occurs C. example: Sodium-potassium exchange pump a. active transport, carrier mediated b. sodium ions (Na) out, potassium ions (K) in c. 1 ATP moves 3 Na and 2 K 2. receptor-mediated endocytosis A. selective uptake of larger molecules and particles 3. endocytosis A. pinocytosis: ingestion on extracellular fluid B. phagocytosis: ingestion of solid particles, occurs in white blood cells, microphage, mast cells, and dendritic cells 4. exocytosis: granules, droplets are released from cell molecules


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