Week one Capters 1-3.2
Week one Capters 1-3.2 CHEM 103
Popular in Chemistry 103- General Chemistry
Popular in Chemistry
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by alex burgy on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 103 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Martin Zanni in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 311 views. For similar materials see Chemistry 103- General Chemistry in Chemistry at University of Wisconsin - Madison.
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Date Created: 09/08/15
Shorthand notation wo without w with e electron Chapter 14 15 16 18 Substance is a type of matter that has the same properties and the same composition throughout a sample Ex Iron Fe Not a substance Salt water this is a mixture Physical properties properties that can be observed and measured wo changing the composition of a substance Physical change changes in the physical properties of a substance ie solid to liquid Temperature is the property of matter that determines whether one object can transfer energy to another object by heating it Density the ratio of the mass of a sample to its volume DMV Proportionality factor is a ratio fraction whose numerator and denominator have different units but refer to the same thing AKA a conversion factor Chemical change or chemical reaction processes in which one or more substances reactants are transformed into one or more different substances the products Chemical properties describe the kinds of chemical reactions the substance can undergo Ex the combustibility of a substance Energy the capacity to do work Heterogeneous A mixture in which the components in that mixture are not uniform or have localized regions with different properties Ex Vegetable soup blood gravel or colored candies in a bowl Homogeneous a completely uniform mixture that consists of two or more substances in the same phase Ex Air vodka and steel Chemical element cannot be changed by chemical reactions into two or more new substances Chemical compound a substance that can be decomposed Ex H20 When elements are chemically combined in a compound their original characteristic propertiessuch as hardness color melting point are replaced by the characteristics of the compound 19 Kineticmolecular theory all matter consists of extremely tiny particles atoms or molecules that are in constant motion 0 Law of conservation of mass Matter is neither created nor destroyed There is no detectable change in mass during a chemical reaction 0 Law of constant composition a chemical compound always contains the same elements in the same proportions by mass Ex any water molecule is always made up of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom in a ratio 112 o Metalsall but 25solid at room temp except Mercury Hg conducts electricity ductile drawn into wires malleable rolled into sheets can form alloys 0 Metalloids properties of both metals and nonmetals Ex Boron B Silicon Si Germanium Ge Arsenic As Selenium Se Antimony Sb Tellurium Te 0 Alkali metals Soft Low melting point react to H20 Ex Lithium Li Sodium Na Potassium K Rubidium Rb Cesium Cs Francium Fr Group 1 0 Alkaline Earth Metals Harder than alkali metals Combine w Oxygen Ex Beryllium Be Magnesium Mg Calcium Ca Barium Ba Radium Ra Group 2 o Halogens reacts with metals they all consist of diatomic molecules molecules that contain two atoms ie Clz Ex Fluorine F Chlorine Cl Bromine Br Iodine l Astatine At Group 17 o Noble Gases None readily react w any of the other elements and some form no compounds at all Colorless and odorless gasses Ex Helium He Neon Ne Krypton Kr Xenon Xe Radon Rn 113 Periodic Table Features 0 Groups elements w similar properties occur in vertical columns 0 Periods Horizontal rows 0 Agroups are known as main group 0 BGroups are called transition elements vquot wwwLIveScIencecom grOdie Table of the ElementS Allcalal metals Posimsiuan metals Mama Ime l Alkaline earth metals Metallloinls Elemnlsymbol Lam lamides omemmnmeuls Element name I d Mamitmiglht AWL allusions Transition metals Noblegases thlnnawri prunmles 5 4 5 IE 739 9 10 11 11 SB 413 SB GB TB BB 113 E E E 4 2 Bi PO v Thallium Lead Bismuth Poloniun IIIL35 mm 1119 K V IN 110 111 113 1141 115 1116 117 118 T 39 Mt D5 Rg Uut Fl Uup ILV Uus Uuo Hleimnerium Dmmdl um Mtgmiunl llrnumltrium Herwium Unurlpemium Lfvnlmma39iilm llnunsnplium Linumrtium 7 368 253 163 1513 1583 263 63 158 265 l L l 21 quotl V W nnnnn In 39 39 P 39 39 KARL TATE f Livesdencacom 51 Ga EalliLm 69113 49 In I Indm ll 31 Tl E m I Tate Karl Periodic Table of Elements Digital image LiveScience Live Science Staff 28 Aug 2013 Web 7 Sept 2015 lthttpwwwivesciencecom25300 periodictablehtmgt 21 0 Atomic Structure The identity and arrangement of these subatomic particles in each atom o Radioactivity Atoms of such elements spontaneously emit radiation 0 Electron e negatively charged subatomic particle o lons Charged atoms or charged group of atoms 0 Proton The fundamentally positive charged particle 22 Ellectrn Heutrn Proton o The Nucleus tiny atomic core 0 Neutron Neutral subatomic particle 0 Atomic number the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom 0 Mass Number is the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an atom o lsotopes atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons 24 o Ionic compound a compound whose nanoscale composition consists of positive and negative ions metals amp nonmetals 0 Metal atoms can have an e removed relatively easy to form a positive ion ca ons o The quantity of positive charge on the positive ion equals the number of e removed from the neutral metal atom o Nonmetal atoms can gain an e to from negative charged ions anions o The quantity of negative charge on the negative ion equals the number of e gained by the neutral nonmetal atom o monoatomic ion is a single atom that has lost or gained an e o Polyatomic ions is a unit of two or more atoms that has a net electric charge Cations Anions 1 Ammonium NH4 Hydroxide OH Nitrite NO2 Mercury I Hg22 Hydroxide Sulfate HSO Nitrate NOs Acetate C2HSO2 Permanganate MnO Hypochlorite CIO Dihydrogen phosphate H2PO4 Chlorite ClO Cyanide CN Chlorate CIO Hydrogen carbonate HCOs perchlorate CIO Anions 2 Sulfite SO Monohydrogen phosphate HPO42 Sulfate SO42 Oxalate C2042 Thiosulfate 82032 Ch romate CrO42 Dichromate Cr2072 Carbonate COS2 Anion 3 Phosphate PO43 25 Namind Positive lons 1 2 For metals that form only one kind of cation the name is simply the name of that metal plus the work ion For metals mostly transition metals that can form more than one kind of cation the name of each ion must indicate its charge The charge is indicated by a Roman numeral in following the ion s name Fe2 lron ll Namind negative ions 1 2 27 A monoatomic anion is named by adding ide to the stem of the name of the nonment element from which the ion is derived from EX Cl is Chloride The names of the most common polyatomic ions are in table 22 Inorganic compounds usually do not contain carbon and are often ionic Organic compounds invariably contain carbon usually contain hydrogen and often contain other elements Molecular compound at the nanoscale atoms of two or more different elements are combined into independent units known as molecules 0 A molecule is a collection of atoms connected by chemical bonds 0 Most compounds that are not ionic compounds are molecular compounds Molecular compounds are usually formed from nonmentals or sometime metalloids properties of molecular compounds low melting point low boiling point do not conduct electricity of solid they are soft and waxy 0 Molecular formula the kinds of atoms combined to make one molecule are indicated by element symbols and the number of each kind of atom is indicated by the subscript H20 0 Chemical bond is an attractive force between two atoms holding them together in a molecule 2829 o Binary molecular compound consists of molecules that contain atoms of only two elements 0 Hydrocarbon is a binary compound of carbon and hydrogen and only those two Ex Methane CH 0 Alkane is a hydrocarbon that contains the greatest possible ration of hydrogen to carbon Ex Ethane C2He o lsomers Two or more compounds that have the same molecular formula but different arrangements of their atoms 0 lsomers differ in one or more physical property ie boiling point color solubility o Constitutional isomers structural isomers are compounds w the same molecular formula that differ in the order in which their atoms are bonded Butane Methvlpr0pane Formula OH OH i H H H H H H f H H H l llH Hl c lH l l l 39H 39H l 39H Structure butane methylpropane Butane and Methylpropane diagram Digital image lsomerism in Organic Chemistry Np nd Web 8 Sept 2015 lthttpwwwavoqadrocoukorqanicisomerhtmgt 210 Mass A Amount A Grams A x 1 Mol A Grams A Moles A Mole Mol one mole is the amount of substance that contains as many atoms molecules ions or other nanoscale entities as there are atoms in exactly 12g of Carbon12 Avogadro s Number 602214129x1023 Molar mass of any substance is the mass of one mole of that substance Amount A Mass A Moles A X Grams A 1 Mol A Grams A Molecular weight The sum of the atomic weights of all the atoms in the compounds formula Formula weight ionic compounds is the sum of the atomic weights of all the atoms in the compounds formula Ionic Hydrate An ionic compound that has water molecules trapped among the ions in its crystal lattice crystal lattice ionic bonding in an orderly array Ex CuSO 5H20 Copperll Sulfate Pentahydrate Chemical formula gives two kinds of info 0 1 The number of atoms of each type per molecule or formula unit 0 2 The amount of each element in a mole of the compound 0 212 Percent composition by mass is the mass of each element divided by the total mass of the compound and expressed as a percent 31 Chemical Reactions 3 Categories of Chemical Reactions Precipitation occur in aqueous solutions when at least one insoluble product a precipitate is formed AcidBase in aqueous solutions involve transfer of Hydrogen ion from one reactant to another Oxidation Reduction Redox involves transfer of one or more e from one reactant to another reactant Balanced chemical equation when a chemical equation conforms to the law of conservation of matter 32 Balancinoi Equations Stoichiometry Relationships among the masses of reactants and products in chemical reactions Steps to Balancing 1 Write an unbalanced equation containing the correct formula of each reactant and product Unbalanced equation N2 H2 NHS 2 Choose an atom that appears in the fewest formulas and insert coefficients to balance the atom Unbalanced equation N2 H2 2NH3 3 Insert coefficients to balance atoms of the remaining elements starting w those that appear in the fewest formulas balanced equation N2 3H 2NH3 4 Check N2 3H 2NH3 N2 N2 H6 H6 Text Used Chemistry The Molecular Science 5th Edition with Owlv2 Online Homework Authors Moore and Stanitski Publisher Cengage
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