Week 6 Notes, Part 1
Week 6 Notes, Part 1 History 3625
Popular in War in Europe and America Since 1500
Popular in History
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Chong on Monday February 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 3625 at Georgia State University taught by Dr.Robin Conner in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see War in Europe and America Since 1500 in History at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 02/29/16
Week 6: 02/16/2016 – 02/18/2016 – 02/23/2016 The Civil War cont’d. 1864 Victory is in sight, only if Lincoln hires the “right” commander. Total War is complete. Spring/Summer: Grant and Lee go back and forth, trying to deplete one another’s resources. Lee loses about 60k Soldiers. U.S. Grant: total war and coordinated operations. Sherman (and Total War) Marches from Chattanooga to Atlanta, then orders his forces to Virginia. Grant and Butler reinforce Lee and prevents mobility. o Main focus was to break down the Confederacy. Objective: evacuate citizens in preparation for battle. o Both evacuation and citizens are distractions to the officers. Potential of rebellion—“Family of my Enemies” deal. Increased the risk of Sabotage and Information leakage. There is a lack of resources where the Union is attempting to care for the Southerners. This ordeal places blame on the Confederate for the inevitable damages, that there is no support from their government. Benefit: Sherman can move the Southerners at will without their government’s protection. Sherman Marches to the Sea 1864, and Through the Carolinas (1865) Captures Atlanta in 1864. o Destroys any items or places that can be used to the Confederate’s advantage in war. Confederate Partisan Raiders in Virginia Union fights against Partisan groups who are appointed by government officials. o Partisan Ranger Act of 1862 o Partisans specialize in guerilla warfare, but they are usually locals terrorizing Union soldiers. o Partisans are estimated to be about 1/3 of the Confederate Army, used for both conventional and unconventional warfare. The Lieber Code and General Order 100 Francis Lieber: fought against Napoleon during the Napoleonic Wars. o Lieber opposed succession, and believed in the Union’s ability to restore the Union. o Questioned the Morality of War… every legitimate soldiers are or can be treated under the “bar” of war. o Belief that the Partisans are civilians acting in rebellion. o Limits on buildings and institutes, and only allowed if it legitimizes achieving war effort. o Focuses on Humanitarianism, which is believed to prolong war. Vigorous wars are brief and short. Cost of War: Union dead: ~389k Confederate dead: ~289k+ (possibly more than originally estimated.) Wounded (Combined): ~475k+ Union casualty rate: 1 in 5 (~17%) Confederate casualty rate: 1 in 3 (~35%) Why did the Confederacy Lose: (Possibilities) External Reasons: o The Union had greater manpower as well as resources. o The length of the war, which was longer than either side anticipated. o There was also a lack of international support. Internal Reasons: o The Confederates had a loss/lack of will and identity as a new “nation.” o Leadership issues: Lincoln was more personable, healthier and showed more actual effort in the war. Davis was sick, rigid, and less actively involved during the war. o Internal Disputes There was a lack of support and/or resources. Late-19 Century: the Military’s Return 1. How does the mission of both the Army and Navy evolve? 2. How do they develop a more professional outlook? 3. What kind of Transition between the Civil War Era and the Spanish-American War Raises questions about African American soldiers. There is a cap in the military at about 28k, including African American soldiers. o They are late labeled as Buffalo Soldiers, stationed out in the Midwest for reconstruction. Soldiers Drinking at Forth Keogh, MT, 1890s Soldiers sought out the West out of the expectation of novelty and fighting Indians. o Ends up focusing mostly on hard labor and building garrisons. Many concerns about climate change, as it was a very isolated area with a limited supply chain. o Stress of everything lead to alcoholism and desertion. Post-Civil War Officers Many promoted officers lose their status and ranking after the Civil War. o This is due to their temporary promotions during the war, which they go back to their previous rank post-war. Promotions during this time were slow, an individual would have to wait for the individual in their wanted spot to get promoted so that the spot becomes open. All of the officer’s ambitions were thwarted with this stagnant period. Navy: they lost from roughly 700 ships to around 50 in the span of 5 years. o These ships were deprecated and dilapidated. Post-Civil War Reconstruction Policy The focus was on restoring the South. o The Army didn’t want to, as it was too political in nature while their purpose was in fighting. Andrew Johnson showed no guidance during this period. o He was very lenient in reconstruction policy. He also encouraged Southern governments to go against Reconstruction. This led to the “Black Codes” which demoted free Blacks to second class. There seemed to be very opposing opinions and decisions within the government and between them and the army. Freedmen’s Bureau This was an organization created to help African Americans transition from slaves to free Black citizens. o Also focused on creating a court system for free Blacks to second class, like slaves. This put a struggle on their ability in owning land and property as well as obtaining jobs, etc. Army They take the responsibilities on general reconstruction. Helps African Americans register to vote. Breaks apart Supremacy Groups such as the KKK. There were no major issues in restoring the South, but many Generals/Officers did not wish to restore their social order. However, radical members of Congress though that the Army was not doing enough, whereas Democrats believed that the Army was doing too much. 1877 Congress denies proper appropriation from the Army, reducing the money which leads to people not getting paid. The responsibilities of the Army are to reform the Western Frontier, restoring the relationship between Natives and Whites. More White settlers span out, creating conflict between the settlers and the Natives. Army reduces to policing social order and land, which forced the Natives in moving to smaller reservations. There’s a sort of ambivalence in the relationship and order within the Native American culture. o Others believe that the Natives should be exterminated whereas others prefer to convert them and assimilate them to White culture.
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