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Matters of the Mind Week 4 Notes

by: Athena Manzino

Matters of the Mind Week 4 Notes PSYCH 23200

Marketplace > Ithaca College > Psychlogy > PSYCH 23200 > Matters of the Mind Week 4 Notes
Athena Manzino

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Week 4 notes
Matters of the Mind: The Neuron and Beyond
Brandy Bassette-Symons
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Athena Manzino on Monday February 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 23200 at Ithaca College taught by Brandy Bassette-Symons in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Matters of the Mind: The Neuron and Beyond in Psychlogy at Ithaca College.


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Date Created: 02/29/16
Matters of the Mind: The Neuron and Beyond Week 4 Notes Clenching pain  Proprioceptive feedback is missing so the signal to clench harder is sent  One of the most common pains  The basal ganglia waits for proprioceptive feedback, but it’s missing so it signals to clench harder o Amplification of signal because lack of proprioception  Pre-existing Hebbian Link o Clenching command and pain o Basal ganglia keeps turning up pain and it fools the brain  Paralysis (before amputation) vs. Learned paralysis (amputee) o Many with frozen limbs had pre-existing nerve pathology  Arms were already paralyzed before amputation) o Motor commands sent and monitored by parietal lobe for body image update o Learned paralysis  Motor commands stop being sent because of lack of visual feedback Mirror box treatment  Motor commands for both hands to open  Amputating the phantom o Motor command sent to both hands o Copy sent to cerebellum and parietal lobe o Proprioception is missing o Visual feedback conflicts parietal lobe  Remove arm from body because body image updates to be more accurate Nature and Nurture in Body Image  Below the elbow amputees and pincers o Pincers are created by severing the stump and separating the two bones o Body image is updated (nurture)  Born without forearms but counts on fingers o Use phantom fingers to calculate (math counting) (nature) o This is based on genetics and is passed down  4 legged amputee o Right leg too short and amputated at age 6 o Had three right leg phantoms at age 16 o One phantom 6 inches short o Phantom at site of amputation o Phantom at normal length Leprosy  Disease of the peripheral nerves and mucus membranes in the upper respiratory tract  Gradual loss of hands/arms and toes/legs results in no phantoms  Chronic bacterial infection  Curable (16 million in 20 years)  Not infectious after 2 weeks  In 2012, there were 180,000 cases in 16 countries and over 50% of those cases were in India  95% are naturally immune  Spread through bodily contact  Number fingers and toes leads to infection which leads to loss of extremities (rotting)  Gradual loss of digits=no phantoms o Body had time to adapt o Body image updates  Gangrene and amputation o Numbness and increased likelihood of injury leads to secondary infection, leads to ischemia (loss of blood flow) to the area leads to tissue death (gangrene) and the only option is to amputate o 30,000-40,000 amputations performed annually for gangrene in the US (diabetes) o Lepers with amputations  Have phantoms  Not gradual  Physical Indicators of Leprosy o Dark/ red spots (hair loss) o Loss of feeling (numb) o Tissue/nerve damage Projecting sensations  Galvanic skin response o Measures emotional attachment o Autonomic Nervous system  Fight or flight  Sweat (dissipate heat)  Heart rate, hormones, etc. The zombie in the Brain  CO poisoning and drawing form (DF)  Diane fletcher o Awoke completely blind after CO poisoning o 48 hours regained color and texture but no form  Could not identify objects or people  DF= drawing form o She couldn’t draw from models but could from memory o She couldn’t perceive line orientation o Perceptual matching tasks decreased o Visuomotor posting task increased o Can use visual info to guide movements but to recognize objects o This shows that vision is nota unified all or nothing process  Sensation o How info gets processed through the mind o Process performed by sensory receptors in which environmental stimulation is transduced into neural activation  Transduction  Detecting elementary sensory features  Perception o Process of reorganizing, organizing, and interpreting information from sensory receptors  Not an exact copy of the “world”  Based on past experience and expectations Part of the eye  Retina o Back of the eye can create neural impulses o Sensory membrane  Light is projected onto this o Photoreceptors in retina  Lightchemical energy action potential  Sensory receptors o Specialized cells that transduce or convert sensory energy into neural activity o Energy filters: respond only to a narrow band of energy  Two types of photoreceptors o Rods (dim)  Sensitive to dim light, night vision  Located in peripheral retina  Movement o Cones (light)  Sensitive to bright light, day vision, and color vision  Maximally responsive to bright light, day vision, and color vision  Macula o Info goes into a “cone” shape  Fovea o Made up of a bunch of cones


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