EPSS 101 - Lectures 15 & 16
EPSS 101 - Lectures 15 & 16
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Date Created: 06/03/14
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d 5 Ll ill rm 3 3 riwiEi quot ifoihu l 39i i1 li ll E x ll 0 ii at ii iquot Radioactive Waste Disposal if Nuclear Proliferation Disposal of radioactive waste is a Unique issue associated with nuclear l ll 5rarl Elfln39llw1U l 5a l m M WWW l 39 I if 739 39 it It ll 39 nuclear chain 391 39i3llL39I l W In 5 39 quotquotquotquot39 E quot quot quotquot Because at the long halflives of the isotopes rrwo r39vrd 160000 years 39 39 39 quot 39 quot 4 39 39 39 anti Llquotf39l quotl39l 39Il39I tf3 regarding our future over irnesea es ol1Di years most 3915 39 47 quot B P pn 0 mus M 5 Cttlullinl l n iiii Z approauis loi I1UCliJIf waste disriossl lac la trrmicr1ilillIl3r 39 aF7 A Hal 39 1s C L 4 39 ll 5 M l ll Plus Were is SE39iEnJsquotNl39l39i 39ElTE f quot7quot p waste 5 3 l I 39 a39 mu 1 l l 39 Irl l Q1 la quot V 7 1 1 l 7 quot 17 M DI F iis 111 ItiEhhl A I A I quot 7 l M 5T so 7 III 39 F q I ll1390quot in l g A 3 In as quotquot 9 ll E I lg quotquot quot39 U quot 139 105 we 4 H1 39 ls E 7 3 an 39 quot 9 M Ill U hJ 9 m V V N u A 1L JrMD O it Is estilrulteri ihat1li39 re are i4Di1ZO00 I393939rr 3 3394 39 34 tones of iiigiily i TtI39lCheri uranium aL 4 to 1 1 r tones of P ltoriiu39quot in the weriiill 39 39 I quot M H P I 1 About halioithis 5 iiseci tor Fowler 39 quot 3393 3 39 Tlquotlfc us started mooning uciolir mwer quot m r 39quot 39 t ecI ii39ioiogy to satellite couritquot39e s mtlm the I 7 4 393 Atoms tor Pens23 program H 7 V l u u l e 5 H 39 s verailoi I quotiJsiF ir ai E warv quot 0 V quot convened to rmclearweapoos rogarns V I quot 39 39 I 39 O 39 quot 3 39 l quot j l l Whether the wIrJi sJiIr39r1l1 MstainsJ of l is P I39lquot A I g H quot5 quotif 39 pv7 0 ml Fuel Ac mw as 3 l quot l39 l me nuciear weapons misses the world safer or N l Iess safe is I3 dehataba E i3 W t 39 l l4 39 39 p 39li l l39l l il ii ifi iliti H l Irwe ml ll pe L JZ 7 ll P c 39 i i vi r i I i p i l E ii ll 5 it is l i i r 1 Fill r 39l39rii Pr z l fl ll9 39 r P z ll 39 39e 39 r i ll ll 39 l W was irlswl liiiiflj llfilli s lltell lll lquot li 1i li39i y rri u R ii r so ill i i Dirty Bombs Dirtyi bombi are corwenitionail expilosiiwas with aiddiedzradiioiazctiue rnaterlal Distributes radtioaCti ve material widely radiological damage and contamination costly to clean up 39J JtirIti lg gottanZt terror weapon Concerns over control of radioactive matenals since 911 1 Dirty Bomb A Cesium I37 lled parlcage uncovered in Mostow 5 39 Abandoned Soviet Radioisotope Thermoelectric Gen eirator HTS tor the Laklng fl Examples of radguai d 39 Roman Empire Europe Han Dynasty East Asia Decline ancl Collapse of Civilization lecture 16 Our Energy Future 2 1 t l Lr UV13 p as h Examples ofragidicollapsez Mayan Civilization Central America Easter Island Civilization Paci c mr pt Road Warrior QijlE39l tE1rajlit i ititlriifiit pO I Pj ijtiui iIfl liCl i E35 39lZlIl Euriquot39r 395 Energy l39Hmi1ishing fossil resources cincl prospects For to sustainable future Frofessoi DU fltl Flange lncr easing political tensions in oilproducing regions i ii i mm W W u V L F r17 lt 39 I lFumlameinta Future Energy Issues lnconveiniertt Tiruttts ltllodern civilization is enabled by energy agriculture economy techniotlo iy transportation environmental control etc Increasing population liftti er s ear Increasing energy demand especially in developing regions o of our energy currently comes from burning fossil fuels Finite fossil fuel resources Renewable energy sources coming online but slowly Rapidly increasing greenhouse gas levels in the atmosphere due to fossil fuel burning Prospects for signi cant global warming climate change sea level rise extinction etc No clear consensus regarding our energy future Direct msasurantents IPCC co projections quot iquotquot quot l 39 quot ii ism laa edl on models for a vi 7 39 5 Sconnirlos E iquot futElI39e E l1fMStSllOnlSi 2 5 0P W E157 PA MFI 3 e in 3 r E2 F5921 Past ens future 603 airriospheric sortamirations mo e o tam mo ism tam 2000 2100 lglifitll i i l IquotI f 1lquot391 39i39if39l l39iquot quotr r39 quot tslw h Wquoti ll iwi mi e x tin l a39ur quotlv 7 H J M Q l t I 7iiquot lquotquotUquot iGk 7 39 7 itquot39f l ivera bf ii 39EfEt3971C1 tD liul mti Lli239D W dlJltjbll39il39lrfJ at i l3f te39v C L CO2 Emissions and Future Scenarios Carbon Sequestration Removal ofcarbon dioxide from the atmosphere by physical burial and subterranean gas injection H 1 JK K p v I M f Us jet t 39l39Hi39I t Ll u A T s 8 z Issues jg 39 kz quot 39 M z Danger of leaks Tectonic processes NIMBY St 39 5 w y j quotiv Cost d oubles cost of fossil tuells S Bx n Gw Energy requires 20 oll energy produced a v I H X rquotquot T Y 0 s sw r 4 t u u i t Current Geographic lDlSlTllbUltlOl39l or CO2 Emissions Q J15 WtAK s 1 P l H M 0 r J F T J gm M E A H A Pg t y q lkif l lf gt llnj l ix 1 KTE U1 U 39LfI yI39ltlti39l 3m tilt quotltlFl39l39l r l39 quot Ir 0 n 5 K ti N l tquotT39t39t p I llt39 slL ltt1itmquotrr39 l 3l l i tl Pak M1 l is pp t will rt W Mquot Vo it r l ll ll quot quot39l ll 395 L31 E l t l4Dc1quot1 quotquotquotN39l139 E lw 1 l t j R tHl tIl71 I tart1 rgfl U llf 3377 PLl 39l rr It lquot i W l tltl e 39 39 39n l F l r N l til i 4 39239 LI I I3 it it A3 S ta 1 E lrl hll H1 rj Hr 13ttl quotell7 l 39 l 39 llJ li led ottnl7et tlr l39quot39l l39lquotIPitt of P A 3 llquot 4 tilt lat rt l3939ltylyM quot2l r39flL39iTf EUlitr39L 139 LJl r tut all 39quotlll39l739 IT1 E n g i b p b n g 7 7 W 7 T The only remotely practical way to prevent global warming is tqIsEECi e isgstionls l The most damaging sources of future CO2 emission have yet toquotEe built Solar Radiation Management to cool climate Release of reflective aerosols already happening llncretase land albedo Space Sun Shade 3 L7 39 tri tr t l 14 jrL H Carbon Dioxidle Removal am Hi 551 U H Artl cital trees that use chemical reactizorts to remove CO2 from the atmosphere Calcium carbonate bricks Ellochar anoxic pyrolysis of biomass produces stable carbon that can39t be used for respiration Gil 51 l393qr C D Ocean Fertilization Photosynthesis in the open ocean is limited not by 3 6 sunlight or water but the availability of nutrients to the ocean such as iron 3 M increases photosynthesis taking 302 out of the p ah 3 M atmospihere 4 X W l luhplredltctable ecological l BSlllllS 7 W W Cam be tested without disrulpttng ocean ecology g in Relatively ineffective compared to direct redluctlon in am 5 n1am39 P as we is Z 0 239 an 39 quotHis IJtI39lII3nIra 39391l ElInlilr I HIm39n1 LII i IfP vi l939Hm B39 JfquotI h39I ITvIi quottl lls i I Dawqagt jl V Z fl carbon emissions 7 lt39l quotJ larl ll Jul l quot1 3 ll quotl tj1 y l il rl39lquotquot gt E l l l P I all 39539quot ill lquot ltl quot39 l7quotquotfIquotl39 ltrt ll llflllxl l yK quot39fi ll if ll fill l39T i ii it W ll iquotl C tlri 6k tar D t i39i o a i r quot3 0 iquot39 i H i L if EC K Esi tygii pD ILL I 7 11quot I ll 1 s1quot39lJ L Q39 r 0 Ai1 hquot1 Al Mai t1 Wu iirtu til 1quotti uquot r0 a Pj mi ti 0 0 it ti E 1 il39E J l 39 ii m g3939I quotr 39tIi 1ilL ii F U A 4 i quot E F r i D E It IL r r i fquot39l1quot7 r tIrtir394itlttI D1 uiut39u3l eIii1r Liirpi iI39I 399 5iI1 ls 5 r I uII E ilm Three example scenarios for our energy future How Much Energy Do We Need rs quotiii a I 39lquottiiquotJ39 LI391 Global Energy Production and Consumption Ewe i 39hr tlFquot Po ulation is rowing by 1 per year but energy demand is growing by 32 per yez ijas a more energy intensive lifestyle spreads to the developing worl If we continue in a business as usualquot mode then by 2050 the world gt would consume more than twice as much energy per year as it does iu1t 0 39 1 today X p5 t P If fossil fuel energy sources are currently peaking then this additional 4 energy would need to come from new renewable sources H rl Illgliii 39I i v i l H 1 E I 39l ii if U i ii i ii 0 ii if ll i 0 U 4 J 51 quotii Ir 1 ta 39E 39W39 397 Jrtt i39 ii 0quot W L iilitlitil ii Ll Oth Id Renewable Energy Needs 39 39 39quot 39 er eas Cap overall CO2 emissions to decrease over time Create a market where CO2 pollution credits can be How much renewable energ ired to supply the bought and sold or traded 39 p USA s current energy needs C 5xt 0 Watts Theory If the total number of CO2 pollution credits 39 does not exceed a predetermined cap then those who T can reduce emissions most cheaply will do so achieving the pollution reduction at the lowest cost to society i Renewable Energy SoiirttUriil E Iiper P of UM Nara Issues J Brought to you by the nancial services industry Lame windmmirea 500E00 000000000 Three wirionialum the same folks who brought you Enron the global nancial meltdown quotquot quot 39P M quot E 9 395 m quot quot39 Encourages trading rather than immediate and 7 Acres otMonocryntnLtineF39VCetls 125EI39O 120CICCO0CO 229 ttnweetriearcaoflcansas neqesslary struptqral Changes K H Historically similar pollution trading schemes for AcresolThn Film FV ceii tooooo isooooooooo 235 39lI39l39I39lquotB39Eal39B a0H39C3139lll38 S02 have not been gs gucceggfulvag Qn piit39iliLlEl m laws tax ingentives and taxes AcresolSolar39l39l39tern39aIPowerr soeoeososa issoooooooo 315 ismeatheamaotitanaas Fusion quotquotquotquot39P w quot quot 39 quot39 Acres otEthand PnoduiI1 ori 1IJEIO5 11538061538 220 lirneuthearea allarlsaa Same pnnclple 1 powers Stars Necessary temperature and pressures are difficult to 9 He 35 Me 39 achieve n 141 Mev Experiments that achieve a quotb tkevenquot point have been recently achieved 7 U E it y l quotiquot39i l 39i Jt ti I11 t739Fl quotl oo y ATl j it iii in Lt 0y quot7 quot393quot 3
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