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Aerospace Structures

by: Heloise Bernhard DVM

Aerospace Structures EAE 135

Heloise Bernhard DVM
GPA 3.83

Valeria Saponara

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Valeria Saponara
Class Notes
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Heloise Bernhard DVM on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EAE 135 at University of California - Davis taught by Valeria Saponara in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see /class/191750/eae-135-university-of-california-davis in Engineering Aerospace Sci at University of California - Davis.

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Date Created: 09/08/15
An Overview of Aerospace Structures and Materials EAE 135 Valeria La Saponaragt PhD January S d 2007 MAE UCD Outline Overview of EAE 135 Structures and Materials for Aircraft Cost of Aircraft Structures Advanced Materials Safety in Aircraft Fatigue Aeroelasticity Aerodynamic Instabilities in a Nonaerospace Structure Example of a very successful aerospace mission Summary MAE UCD Overview ofEAE 135 This course is meant to provide students with enough information to understand the process and the issues involved in the design of an aerospace structure Topics to be covered include materials fracture mechanics and fatigue aeroelasticity mm m I Overview ofEAE 135 airplane parts Y lateral axis a murmur swimin rm can w Z normal axis mm m Overview of EAE 135 airplane parts Confd Review functions of Wings Fuselage Landing gear Fueltanks engine Control surfaces suuwyxn 5km mamadue Ii v39i Unnllzuuv Q 7 sun z J x 7 Hanna Hearspur A Rib Ditch Lunar can Numnlmi f F M w m w Sll enrn39lifmyLr S quotquotquotgm Not to scale MAE UCD Overview of EAE 135 airplane parts Cont d g E g 2 3 g E wworl bum mummy Not to scale MAE UCD l Structures and Materials for Aircraft Lockheed SR 71 Blackbird 9 Movie of in ight re Jeling of SR71 MAEUCD Structures and Materials for Aircraft Cont d A rare image of the Shuttle as sonic boom occurs 1979present MAEUCD Structures and Materials for Aircraft Cont d Hulli39ll39 n Z Jlnm lulululu um A mslslam quot 39 l gt my mums quotmummm I I355W 501mm I 1 Mmmvs wys dl39 im ll quot Sikorsky Black Hawk Selfvscullnn munm lumenmum quot 31 on n1 calsyms WV very 19805present MAE net 9 Structures and Materials for Aircraft Cont d White 1 1 852 185 15 1963 record 31 MAE ml in Structures and Materials for Aircraft Cont d Boeing 787 Dreamliner Expected 1St flight 2007 Mach number cruise 085 Wing span 1 90 feet Operating empty weight 242000 252000 lbs Up to 350 passengers Range 7200 8000 nautical miles MAE UCD Structures and Materials for Aircraft Cont d Boeing 777 Boein 787Dreamliner Launched in 2000 To be launched in 2008 1 1 composites 50 composites 70 aluminum 20 aluminum 7 titanium 15 titanium 1 1 steel 1 0 steel 1 other 5 other MAE UCD Structures and Materials for Aircraft Confd The B787 will be 20 more fuel ef cient than similar airplanes Compared with A330 200 B787 is 3040000 lbs lighter Pros of composite materials I Composites have high stiffnessweight strengthweight no corrosion problems good electrical behavior I They are sustainable and have typically low maintenance Cons of composite materials I More difficult to predict and design with For example they are susceptible to delamination caused by impact damage Impact damage is sometimes undetectable at naked eye 9 recipe for disaster MAEUCD 13 I Cost of Aircraft Structures I Estimated average cost of an aircraft structure is 200500 per pound I B2 bomber reportedly costs more per ounce than gold cost as of 010307 62740 1997present MAEUCD u I Advanced Materials 8 7 6 5 4 3 in Aramid Specific Strength 10quot6 1 amp Aluminum Metals Steel 0 I I I I I I 2 3 4 5 Specific Modulus 10quot8 in MAE UCD 15 Advanced Mate als Boemg 777 39 A110 3 T710724 I AlzmepTAIznTSG 3Uppersldn 9F quot S39 quot W n AI 70357T77 and Suiquotgm I 4Upperspx 2A 39 chord bulkhead 45911tmcks EkFlom39 I1 ea y Ecsa 7 gleam ulersleeve Uncoluml amp an braces cmmkmnnw Imp 1mde uusueverwmwl g gg fwhm llInlemeliImel39bmrel mu xmm igummgmwm 4 mmme AIrLiWWsmnddmnpingangks RTMCFRPIIII MAE UCD 16 I Advanced Materials Cont d Unmanned Aerial Vehicle UAV UC Davis 2004 plane SAE AeroWest Competition 2004 magma l7 I Advanced Materials Cont d 9 Movie ofX 29 maneuvering 19841992 magma m I Safety in Aircraft Phase of Flight l Type oflncident Number of Occurrences Boeing 737 Ground 7 Rejected TakeOffRTO Overrun 11 Remained on runwa Cruise Structural failure 2 Cruise Other gt H jack Bomb 4 Five thousands 73739s Double Engine Failure 3 have been built Since 1967 Fuel Exhaustion 1 RUdder Problem 2 Five major accidents in 2005 Approach Non Precision 15 Approach Other 9 531 casualties Landing Collision 1 Landing Short 5 httpwwwb737orgukaccidentreportshtm Landing Long 6 Landing Gear Up 1 Landing LOC alter touchdown 12 Go Around 4 MAE UCD 19 Safety in Aircraft Fatigue Cont d Aircraft decommissioned from the Army purchased by US Forest Service USFS Public use does not need to comply to FAA regulations required inspections Examples In 2002 Lockheed C130 retanker inflight separation of right wing 3 casualties In service at USAF 1957 1986 bought by USFS in 1988 National Transportation Safety Board NTSB reported 12inch long fatigue crack on the lower surface of the right wing with two separate fatigue crack initiation sites at stringer attachment rivet holes MAE UCD 20 I Safety in Aircraft Fatigue Cont d Chalk s Ocean Airways flight 101 crash 2005 20 casualties Grumman G73T Turbine Mallard 1947 Wing separated in flight Preliminary analysis shows fatigue cracks at the wingfuselage junction MAE UCD l MAE UCD I Safety in Aircraft Fatigue Cont d Flight UA 232 crash 1989 113 casualties DC 10 Engine fan rotor disintegrated due to undetected fatigue crack in titanium disk Manufacturing defect was missed by nondestructive inspections Safety in Aircraft Cont d I Flight AA 587 Crash 2001 265 Casualties I Airbus ASOOVBOO Fli m 587 encountered twice Wake tur ulence caused by a Boeing 747 Rudder and vertical Stabilizer cornposite mall s separated in iigm National Transportation Safety Board recommendations in i i2004 gt Piesenlaliun by Di Hess un EliBAA pin iEIEZ Eainei menu 11 Safety in Aircraft Fatigue Cont d Fatigue design philosophies Failsafe structure has defects Needed redundant structural members load transfer inspection routines Examples stiffened Wing skins stiffened fuseage skins Safelife structure is resistant to defects Needed knowledge of fatigue environmental effects ampes landing gear Wl grfUSEagEUl ls ninges 0n variable genrnelrywings manta a I Safety in Aircraft Aeroelasticity Cont d Aeroelasticity study ofthe interactions of dynamic elastic and aerodynamic forces Flight mechanic truotural l namios dynamics elasticity MAE UCD Safety in Aircraft Aeroelasticity Cont d Static aeroelasticity Divergence Aileron reversal Dynamic aeroelasticity Flutter linear Tail buffeting linear Limit cycle oscillations nonlinear MAE UCD I Safety in Aircraft Cont d F16 I 9 Movies about limit cycle oscillations of F16 1974present MAEUCD 27 I Aerodynamic Instabilities in a Non aerospace Structure Tacoma Narrows 9 Movies about crash Lasted 4 months 1940 MAE UCD 28 Example of a very successful aerospace mission I Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity Launched in June 2003 and July 2003 landed in January 2004 Original plan was a 3 months mission Mission now extended through September 2007 9 Movie about launchlanding MAE UCD 29 Summary Overview of issues about structures and materials for aerospace engineers MAE UCD 30 MAE ucn 31


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