History of Print Media (ch. 7-9 selected sections)
History of Print Media (ch. 7-9 selected sections) Comm 130
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Deja Jackson on Monday February 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Comm 130 at University of Pennsylvania taught by Joseph Turow in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Mass Media and Society in Communication at University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 02/29/16
History of Print Mass Media 03/01/2016 ▯ Books ▯ Three Important Themes: 1. The modern book did not arrive in a flash as a result of one inventor’s grand change; the book-making technology evolved rather than appeared suddenly 1440 CE —Johannes Gutenberg’s printing press o moveable type o allowed books to be printed quicker and made cheaper o 1450-18 century =>1 billion books printed 2. The book as a medium of communication developed as a result of social and legal responses to the technology during different periods Gutenberg first printed the Bible because it was by far the most important book of his era Led leaders in different parts of Europe to proclaim laws laying out the subjects that were appropriate for books th o Ex: British Crown and printing press of 17 century—licensing from the monarchy o Vernacular bible vs. Latin bible => tension between Catholic church (originality) and Christian Europeans that didn’t speak Latin o Copyright Act of 1709 th Crucial social development in the 19 century — spread of literacy 3. The book as a medium of communication existed long before the existence of the book industry Book printing became a large, profitable industry in mid 19 century due to: o Jacksonian Democracy (1829-1837) Appealed to the “common man” Expanded voting rights Mass literacy emerged alongside mass politics o Technological change Expansion of infrastructure More access o Entrepreneurial capitalism Emergence of book printers, bookstores, and publisher open in 19 century Less government control; no licensing necessary US did not recognize foreign copyrights until 1891; legalized foreign piracy Small family-owned presses went out of business because they could not compete ▯ ▯ Newspapers: printed products created on a regular basis and released in multiple copies 1. The newspaper did not arrive in a flash as a result of one inventor’s grand change Critical changes in the paper’s look came about with the development of methods for creating headlines across the page, ways to reproduce images and way to include color Increased ability to reach the masses through new technology o Steam-powered press (1814) o Rotary press (1830s-50s) o Computerized printing technologies Telegraph, telephone, and computer helped bring the news from outside the offices 2. The newspaper as a medium of communication developed as a result of social and legal responses to the technology during different periods The rise of the belief in an adversarial press: a press that has the ability to argue with the government 1830s: The Penny Press o combined mass market appeal with industrial production on a large scale to achieve economies of scale (the larger, the cheaper and more efficient) and reach large audiences at a MUCH lower price o relied on advertising revenue o helped popularize news for more parts of society o was the product of historical circumstances Institutional factors: the Post Office Act of 1972—emphasized the importance of news in American society Technological factors: speed of delivery (railroads and electric telegraphs) and speed of production Political factors: adversarial press (see above) and partisan press (papers financed and controlled by political agendas or parties) Cultural factors: newly literate populations, growing working class, more people with daily access, shift towards pop culture and scandal Economic factors: cheap paper, productive capacity of machinery, postal subsidies, geography (east was covered in forest), transportation 3. The newspaper as a medium of communication existed long before the existence of the book industry 1870s-1990s: number of papers increase dramatically 1880s-1900s: ads become more important for financial support and the rise of yellow (colorful) journalism Early 20 century o Journalism more “professionalized” o Norms of objectivity o Reading the paper is a civic duty o Newspapers distancing themselves from spectacular entertainment and dubious sponsors o Rise of newspaper chains (Scripps, Hearst) ▯ ▯ Magazines ▯ The magazine did not arrive in a flash as a result of one inventor’s grand change 1700s: first published regularly in England 1741: first magazines appear in the US MANY changes throughout the 19 century regarding the aesthetics and magazine’s look with respect to the covers and internal layout 20 century saw more ads than ever ▯ The magazine as a medium of communication developed as a result of social and legal responses to the technology during different periods 1825 there were less than 100 magazines being published in the US; this increased dramatically over the next 50 years due to: o the spread of literacy o steam-powered presses o postal loopholes and laws ▯ The magazine as a medium of communication existed long before the existence of the book industry th Explosive growth of magazines after the Civil War and into the 19 century as well as marketing Birth of women’s magazines: “Godey’s Lady’s Book” (1830): VERY influential and played a large role in fashion norms; perpetuated the WHITE WEDDING DRESS 1970s was the birth of more tailored magazines: BRANDING of new industrial products o Muncey’s Fundamental Shift for the Industry 1. Lower cost of magazine -> attract large audience 2. Get advertisers 3. Charge more for ads you would otherwise make from subscriptions 4. Reaching target audiences will keep the cycle going TV as a huge challenge to magazines ▯ ▯ ▯
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