Wine Production VEN 124
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VEN 124 Glossary Terms Used in Wine Chemistry Biochemistry and Microbiology Absorbance Molecules absorb certain energies or wavelengths of light This property can be exploited for the detection of speci c molecules in solution Spectrophotometers are designed to emit monochromatic single wavelength light and to detect the amount of light absorbed by a solution This can be used to quantify the amount of agent present as the concentration of light absorbing species is directly correlated to the amount of light absorbed assuming there are no other interfering compounds Absorption The assimilation or incorporation of one substance by another example molecules absorb light sponges absorb water Accuracy Agreement between a measured value and a true value can be compared to another method of known accuracy can be determined by spiking a solution to be analyzed with an accurately measured amount of analyte Acetaldehyde Metabolite found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes produced by the decarboxylation of pyruvate 0 CH3CH Acetic AcidAcetate Metabolite found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells produced from the oxidation of acetaldehyde acetic acid refers to the protonated form acetate to the unprotonated or salt form and can refer to an ester derived from acetic acid as in ethyl acetate 0 CH3COH Acetobacter Bacterium member ofthe acetic acid bacteria group obligate aerobe that is a spoilage organism in wine production will grow on the surface of wine exposed to oxygen producing large quantities of acetate and ethyl acetate the agent used to make wine vinegar Acetoin 3hydroxy2butanone metabolite produced by lactic acid bacteria from diacetyl or from ocacetolactate generally below the threshold of detection in wine OH CH3 CH C CH3 AcetyICoA Coenzyme A molecule carrying an acetyl group linked by a high energy bond used in biosynthesis especially of fatty acids and in degradation of molecules especially fatty acids Acid A chemical species capable of releasing or donating a proton an electron pair acceptor ie it donates the proton but keeps the electron pair Acidification The process of increasing the acidity of a solution in wine making accomplished by adding an acid species or by ion exchange of hydrogen ions ofthe resin for cations in the wine Acidity Generic term referring to the acid content of a solution alternately possessing the property of donating a proton Acrolein Metabolite produced by some lactic acid bacteria from glycerol interacts with wine tannins to produce an intensely bitter character an unsaturated carbonyl compound 0 CH2CHCH Activated Carbon Fining agent used to remove a wide range of compounds from wine particularly phenolic compounds and anthocyanins less effective against highly water soluble molecules Active Dry Yeast Term used to describe commercial preparations of yeast that have been dehydrated under conditions retaining viability Acyl An organic compound containing a carbon atom with a double bond to an oxygen atom usually derived from an organic acid by removal ofthe hydroxyl found in esters amides anhydrides and acid chlorides 0 R C Acylate To introduce an acyl group into chemically using an acid chloride biochemically using an acyl carrier protein ADP Adenosine diphosphate an ester of adenosine that contains two phosphate groups it is reversibly converted to ATP for the storing of energy by the addition of a highenergy phosphate group Adsorption The adhesion of one substance to another due to electrostatic or ionic forces interaction at a surface as opposed to absorption example filter matrices that adsorb particulates Aeration To bubble air through or othenNise expose to oxygen in the air AerationOxidation A0 Procedure for the analysis of 802 use of air or an inert gas such as nitrogen to remove 802 from a solution to a hydrogen peroxide trap for analysis AFLP Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism similar to RFLP except that PCR was used to synthesize a specific DNA fragment or fragments that are then digested with restriction endonucleases to detect differences in primary DNA sequence used to determine the extent of relatedness of strains alternately the divergence of strains due to genetic drift Aglycone General term for nonglycosidic or noncarbohydrate part of a glucocongujate for example the free avonoid consisting of two aromatic rings linked via a pyran ring minus the glucose moiety is an aglycone Alcohol Organic compound containing a hydroxyl group ROH sometimes used synonymously with ethanol CH3CHOH but refers to a large range of compounds Aldehyde Organic compound ofthe general formula RCHO with a double bond between the carbon and the oxygen but see ketone 0 RCH Alanine A nonpolar amino acid 3 letter code Ala 1 letter code A mw 8909 pKa 235 969 pl 602 H3 2 H2N p COOH H Albumen Protein fining agent derived from egg whites and primarily a mixture oftwo proteins ovalbumin and conalbumin Albumin General class of water soluble proteins Allosteric Refers to a regulatory phenomenon controlling protein activity specifically refers to proteins in which the active site is impacted by small molecules binding to a secondary regulatory site called the allosteric site the compounds are called allosteric effectors Amelioration In wine production the enhancement ofthe quality ofa must orjuice such as changing acidity pH or sugar level Amide Aminecontaining derivative of a carboxylic acid 0 II R C NH2 Amine Nitrogencontaining organic compounds ofthe following general composition RNH2 primary RzNH secondary or R3N tertiary may show considerable basicity Amino Acid Amphoteric organic acid containing an amino group NH2 in addition to a carboxyl group attached to the same carbon atom especially any ofthe alphaamino acids that are the chief components of proteins and are synthesized by living cells or obtained as essential components of the diet R H2N t COOH H Amino Acid Three Letter Code One Letter Code Alanine Ala A Arginine Arg R Asparagine Asn N Aspartic Acid Asp D Cysteine Cys C Glutamic Acid Glu E Glutamine Gln Q Glycine Gly G Histidine His H lsoleucine Ile I Leucine Leu L Lysine Lys K Methionine Met M Phenylalanine Phe F Proline Pro P Serine Ser 8 Threonine Thr T Tryptophan Trp W Tyrosine Tyr Y Valine Val V Amino Transferase Enzyme capable oftransferring amino groups from a donor molecule to a recipient molecule Ammonia Molecule containing a single nitrogen and three hydrogen atoms NH3 becomes positively charged after gaining a proton NH4 which occurs at a pH value below the pKa of 92 AMP Adenosine monophosphate ester of adenosine that contains a single phosphate group derived generally from ATP with loss of diphosphate from ADP with loss of a single phosphate or synthesized directly from adenosine Amphipathic Molecule or compound possessing both hydrophobic and highly polar hydrophilic regions or groups for example phospholipids with a polar head group and hydrophobic nonpolar tails Amylase Any of a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of starch and glycogen or their intermediate hydrolysis products Anabolism De nes biochemical processes that are synthetic producing compounds of greater complexity than the substrates opposite of catabolism Analyte In an assay refers to the species being analyzed the target ofthe analysis Anaplerotic A special class of enzymes involved in the insertion of one carbon 002 or two carbon acetyl CoA molecules during biosynthesis Anion An ion carrying a net negative charge Anthesis To bloom the opening ofa flower Anthocyanin any of various soluble glycoside pigments producing blue to red coloring in owers and plants OGL O glucoside Cyanidin R2 OH R3 H Delphinidin R2 R3 OH Malvidin R2 R3 OCH3 Peonidin R2 OCH3 R3 H Petunidin R2 OCH3 R3 OH Antioxidant General term for a compound that blocks oxidation reactions either by inhibiting the process chemically by reacting with the oxidizing agent or by affecting the activity of enzymatic oxidation processes Arginine A basic amino acid containing four nitrogen moieties can pick up a proton and become positively charged at physiological pH 3 letter code Arg 1 letter code R mw 17420 pKa 217 904 ct amino 1248 guanidino pl 1076 NH2 mN b gm H2 cm 2 mN c COOH H Aroma Odor in wines related to grape as opposed to originating during the process bouquet Ascomycete Any of a class Ascomycetes or subdivision Ascomycotina of higher fungi as yeasts or molds with septate hyphae and spores formed in sacs or asci Ascorbic Acid Vitamin C a naturally occurring antioxidant used in enzymatic reactions as a cofactor used as an antioxidant in wine 0 C CHOH CHZOH HO OH Ascus plural asci a membranous sac that holds sexual spores in fungi Asparagine A polar amino acid containing two nitrogen moieties 3 letter code Ash 1 letter code N mw 13212 pKa 202 88 pl 541 oc Nm H2 H2N C COOH H 8 Aspartate An acidic amino acid 3 letter code Asp 1 letter code D mw 1331 pKa 209 ct carboxyl 386 5 carboxyl 982 pl 297 3 H2N It COOH H Assimilable As in assimilable nitrogen refers to compounds that can be utilized as building blocks for new cell material by an organism Astringent A compound or substance able to draw together the soft organic tissues leading to an unpleasant puckering or dryness ofthe mouth Atomic weight Number indicating the relative mass of an element as compared to an atom of carbon C12 ATP Adenosine triphosphate an ester of adenosine that contains three phosphate groups supplies energy for many biochemical cellular processes by undergoing enzymatic hydrolysis especially to ADP Autoclave Instrument used to assure sterilization of solid or liquid materials uses pressurized steam to kill viruses molds yeasts bacteria and their spores takes advantage of fact that moist heat is more penetrating of living materials than dry heat normally 121 C for 15 to 20 minutes depending upon volumemass Autolysis Process of selflysis of yeast cells hydrolytic enzymes released from the vacuole digest the cell wall and plasma membrane leading to the release of cytoplasmic components Avogadro s Number The number of atoms contained in a mole 6023 X 1023 BAC Has two meanings with respect to wine production Blood Alcohol Concentration a measure ofthe ethanol content ofthe blood stream Bacterial Artificial Chromosome used to make libraries of DNA fragments of eukaryotic organisms BAC libraries of grape genomic DNA exist and can be used in the identification and isolation of individual grape genes Bacteria Microorganisms not containing a membrane bound nucleus generally possess a single circular chromosome any member ofthe eubacteria or archaebacteria the prokaryotes BacteriocidalFungicidal Antimicrobial agent leading to the loss of viability death of a bacterium bacteriocidal or fungus fungicidal Bacteriophage Also simply called phage a viruslike particle that infects bacteria BacteriostaticFungistatic Agent inhibiting the growth of a bacterium bacteriostatic or fungus fungistatic but that is not lethal not leading to loss of viability Balling Density scale based upon weight percent sugar at 175 C Base A compound that can accept a proton becoming positively charged an electron pair donor Baume Density scale based upon salt solutions at 20 C versus sucrose Baume 0018 0553ZBrix at 20 C BeerLambert Law Expression ofthe relationship between the amount of light absorbed by a solution A and concentration of analyte in a solution 10 A Log scl I Where 10 is the incident incoming light intensity I is the transmitted light intensity 8 is the molar absorptivity extinction coefficient the amount of light absorbed by a 1M solution ofthe compound c is the concentration ofthe compound in the solution in molesL and l is the path length usually 1 cm A absorbance Bentonite Clay used as a fining agent aluminum silicate possessing exchangeable cations such as sodium calcium and magnesium effective in the removal of protein from wine Benzoic Acid Antimicrobial agent not approved for use in wine in the US but that has been approved for other foods and beverages carboxylated benzene ring IZOOH 1 R2 R1 Common wine benzoic acid derivatives lfthe 4 position carries a hydroxyl then phydroxybenzoic acid R1 R2 H p pyrocatechuic acid R1 H R2 OH gallic acid R1 R2 OH vanillic acid R1 H R2 OCH3 syringic acid R1R2 OCH3 lfthe hydroxyl group is at position six adjacent to the carboxyl group salycilic acid R1 R2 H opyrocatechuic acid R1 OH R2 H gentisic acid R1 H R2 OH Biofilm Generally a single cell layer of microbial growth coating the surface of a solid object organisms are held together in the mat by exocellular polysaccharides Biogenic Amine Generally toxic amino compounds histamine tyramine phenethyl ethylamine putrescine cadaverine of biological origin from the decarboxylation of amino acids histidine tyrosine phenylalanine arginine lysine in wine generally derived from metabolism of lactic acid bacteria Biotin A vitamin Vitamin H and growth requirement for yeast and humans coenzyme for carboxylation reactions Bisulfite H802 Bitartrate Refers to potassium bitartrate KHTartrate potassium tartrate is K2Tartrate and tartaric acid is H2Tartrate Bitterness Possessing an acrid or disagreeable taste Blank ln spectrophotometric analyses it is important to calibrate the reading ofthe spectrophotometer against a sample not containing any ofthe analyte called a blank this allows for detection of background interferences water may served as a blank calibrating the low end ofthe spectrophotometer that is setting the limits of detection ofa reading Blue Fining Use of potassium ferrocyanide to remove copper from wine not legal everywhere Bordeaux Mixture Mixture of copper sulfate and calcium hydroxide used in the vineyard as an antifungal agent Botrytis Refers to Botrytis cinerea also called noble mold or noble rot a fungus that infects grape berries the fungus is able to penetrate the berry skin leading to the rapid loss of water from the fruit Botrytized Refers to wines that have been made from fruit infected with B cinerea Bouquet Odor arising in wine from the processing ofthe juice must or wine as opposed to originating in the fruit as in fermentation bouquet or bottle bouquet Bovine Serum Albumin BSA An albumin from cow serum commonly used as a standard in biochemical assays Brettanomyces Also called Brett a spoilage yeast most frequently found in barrels or wooden vats imperfect nonsexual spore forming form of Dekkera Brix Relative density scale based upon weight percent g sucrose100g of solution of sucrose at 20 C Buffer Refers to a compound or a solution ofthe compound or ofa mixture of compounds that resists changes in pH brought about by the addition of small quantities of acid or base compounds generally display buffering capacity in the pH range 1 to 1 unit surrounding the pKa value generally comprised of a weak acid or base and a salt ofthat acid or base Buffering Capacity Refers to the strength of a buffer that is how much acid or base must be used to effect a change in pH Bureau of Alcohol Tobacco and Firearms BATF In the federal Department ofthe Treasury the agency responsible for control and regulation of wine production marketing and labeling and collection oftaxes Butanediol 23butanediol a metabolite produced by lactic acid bacteria generally below the threshold of detection H H H30 C CH3 H OH Caffeic Acid Phenolic hydroxycinnamate found in grapes and wine primarily as a conjugate with tartaric acid caftaric acid HO Q 9 00 HO CHCHCOOH CHCH C OP H H 1 OH OOH Caffeic Acid Caftaric Acid Calcium Element with an atomic number of 20 and an atomic weight of 4008 an essential micronutrient required in numerous biological processes Calibration Process of adjusting the response of an instrument to the amount of analyte present in a solution of known composition for example using solutions of 12 known pH to calibrate the output ofa pH meter may need to be done periodically daily or even as each set of samples is analyzed Candida A genus of yeast commonly found on grapes and in wineries may be an agent of spoilage but is rarer than other types of spoilage Capillary Electrophoresis Electrophoretic separation of molecules in a capillary using simple salts in a liquid matrix through which a current is passed See electrophoresis Carbodoser A method for measuring 002 in wine based upon use of agitation to remove dissolved 002 to the gas phase then assessing the pressure released which is equivalent to the amount of 002 present Carbohydrate A general term for molecules with the formula CH20n includes simple sugars and complex polysaccharides Carbon Element ofthe periodic table with an atomic number of 6 and an atomic weight of 1201 Carbonation The process of addition of carbon dioxide Carbon Dioxide A molecule containing one atom of carbon and two of oxygen 002 an end product of oxidative degradation oforganic molecules and used as a precursor of organic molecules in photosynthesis Carbonic General term meaning of relating to or derived from carbon carbonic acid or carbon dioxide Carbonic Acid A molecule containing one carbon atom with two hydroxyl groups and a double bond to an oxygen molecule HOg OH Carbonyl An organic functional group occurring in aldehydes ketones carboxylic acids esters and their derivatives CO Carboxylic acid An organic acid as acetic acid containing one or more carboxyl groups C O OH Casein Protein fining agent derived from milk a mixture Ofoc casein 5 casein s casein and r casein Casse Precipitate formed in wine from the action of metal ions principally copper and iron Catabolism De nes biochemical processes that are degradative or destructive involving the release ofenergy and resulting in the breakdown of complex materials within the organism opposite ofanabolism Catechin A avan3ol found in wine as one ofthe principle phenolic compounds differs from epicatechin in the orientation ofthe hydroxyl group at the three position of the C ring H OH HO O H Cation An ion carrying a net positive charge Cellulase An enzyme that hydrolyzes cellulose a structural polysaccharide Cellulose Structural polymer of glucose found in plants cellulose fibers are used as a matrix in wine filtration Cell Wall The outermost layer of a yeast fungal or plant cell provides rigidity and physical protection in yeast comprised largely of polymers of protein and mannose mannan mannoprotein polymers of glucose glucan plant cell walls contain cellulose as a major component fungi also contain chitin as a component ofthe cell walls 14 Centrifugation The use of centrifugal force to separate particles with a heavier mass from a solution used for clari cation of wines the solid material is referred to as the pellet and the clarified liquid phase is called the supernatant Chalcone An open ring form ofa flavonoid molecule 396 Chaptilization Term forthe addition of sugarto must not legal in all areas Chelating Agent A compound that can bind to or absorb metal ions important in enzymatic catalysis Chitin A 514 linked polymer of Nacetylglucosamine found in the cell walls of fungi in yeast found at the site of cell separation the bud scar Chlorine An element with an atomic number of 17 and an atomic weight of 3545 used as a sanitizing cleaning or bleaching agent in wine production chlorine gas is toxic care must be taken to not generate a toxic gas by mixing chlorine solutions with other solutions Chromatography Method for the separation of molecules in a mixture that employs a solid and mobile phase takes advantage of differences among molecules in partition coefficients mass and other interactive properties five basic types of chromatography paper chromatography thinlayer chromatography column chromatography gas chromatography liquid chromatography HPLC High Performance Liquid Chromatography vary in nature ofthe solid support and the mobile phase gas or liquid Chromosome Linear DNA molecule segregating as a single unit during cell division carries information specifying functional RNA or protein molecules arrayed in genes each chromosome has a singe centromere and two ends or telomeres Cinnamic Acids Phenolic compounds found in wine with the general structure K W COOH R2 1 Common cinnamic acids found in wine cinnamic acid R1R2 R3 H caffeic acid R1 R2 OH R3 H pcoumaric acid R1 R3 H R2 OH ferulic acid R1 OCH3 R2 OH R3 H sinaptic acid R1 R3 OCH3 R2 OH Citric AcidCitrate Intermediary metabolite found universally in prokaryotes and eukaryotes COOH HOOC CH2 g CH2 COOH H Citric Acid Cycle Also known as the tricarboxylic acid or TCA cycle a series of energy yielding enzymatic reactions by which pyruvate or the acetate of acetyl CoA is oxidized to CO2 and H20 reoxidation of cofactors NADH FADH2 reduced in this process generates energy in the form of ATP in the electron transport chain ofthe mitochondria oxygen serves as terminal electron acceptor for this process which is known as respiration the citric acid cycle is also involved in anabolic and catabolic reactions in the generation of precursors or degradation products of several metabolites also used forthe net synthesis ofglucose during the process of gluconeogenesis Citrulline Compound that is both a metabolite ofand precursor ofthe amino acid arginine implicated in ethyl carbamate formation by lactic acid bacteria CHr NH g NH2 9H2 9H2 H3N c COOH H Clone Refers to organisms that are genetically identical and usually derived not using sexual reproduction in grape refers to vines that have been propagated by cuttings and are therefore genetically identical rather than being derived from seeds Coefficient of determination r2 The square ofthe correlation coefficient used with regression analysis gives an estimate ofthe proportion ofthe total variance that is attributable to the independent variable X Coenzyme Any one of several complex organic molecules required for enzymatic activity Coenzyme RoleTargetEntity transferred NADNADH H atoms electrons NADPNADPH H atoms electrons FAD H atoms electrons FMN H atoms electrons Coenzyme Q H atoms electrons Coenzyme A Acyl groups Lipoamide Acyl groups Cobamide coenzymes Alkyl groups Biotin Carboxyl groups Pyridoxal Phosphate Amino groups Tetrahydrofolate C1 transfers Thiamin Pyrophosphate Aldehydes Coenzyme A CoA Coenzyme functioning as a carrier of acyl groups in anabolic and catabolic reactions Cofactor Compound or element required for the activity of an enzyme generally a coenzyme or metal ion B Ca Co Cu Fe K Mg Mn Mo Na Se Zn Colloid Suspended particles partially soluble components the distribution of which between soluble and insoluble phases is dependent upon temperature and properties ofthe particle and the solution colloidal particles tend to adhere to other substances also holding them in solution Condensed Polyphenol Polymers of polyphenolic more than one hydroxyl group on a benzene ring structures more general than condensed tannin Condensed Tannin Polymer of avonoids linked by a carbon to carbon bond formed by nonoxidative polymerization Cooperage A general term for wooden containers found in wineries that hold juice must or wine made by a cooper Copigmentation Solution phenomena with respect to wine color whereby dilution 17 leads to a greater loss of absorbance ofthe solution than predicted from a simple linear relationship due to complex association of colored and noncolored phenolic components in wine with the complexes displaying different color properties such as wavelength of maximal absorption than the dissociated units copigment term for the noncolored components in the complex Copper A metallic element with an atomic number of 29 and an atomic weight of 6355 important in wine in the removal of H28 and other sulfides and as a causative agent of casse Cordon Term for the main branch ofthe trunk ofa vine bearing wood arm ofa trunk Correlation Coefficient r Measure ofthe tendency oftwo variables to vary together does not imply codependence merely that they vary together An r value of 1000 indicates a perfect linear relationship can be determined from a plot ofthe two variables against each other see coefficient of determination r2 Covalence Valence characterized by the sharing of electrons Covariance Measure ofthe tendency of two variables to vary in the same way Cultivar An organism of a kind originating and persistent under cultivation Cycloheximide Fungicide inhibiting protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells at the 808 ribosome some yeast strains DekkeraBrettanomyces are resistant to this compound used primarily to detect Brett in wines Cysteine A nonpolar sulfurcontaining amino acid 3 letter code Cys one letter code C mw 12116 pKa 171 833 sulfhydryl 1078 0L amino pl 502 H H2 H2N COOH H Cystine A dimmer oftwo cysteine molecules formed via bonding ofthe sulfur groups mw 2403 Cytoplasm The organized complex of inorganic and organic substances external to the nuclear membrane and internal to the plasma membrane ofa cell and including the cytosol and membranebound organelles Deacidification The reduction ofthe acidity ofa juice must or wine Deaminate To remove the amino group from a compound Decanoic Acid Short chain saturated fatty acid containing 10 carbon atoms produced by yeast and inhibitory to yeast and fungi at high concentrations CH3CH28COOH Deficit Irrigation Watertaken up from the soil by a plant root system is lost from the foliage via the process oftranspiration or more correctly evapotranspiration evapotranspiration is the driving force for the vascular circulation ofthe plant full irrigation means that the process of evapotranspiration is not limited by the available water but by climatic temperature humidity and plant density of foliage factors de cit irrigation means supplying water at a level below that allowing maximal evapotranspiration requires knowing evapotranspirative rates humidity and soil water status Dekkera A genus of yeast found associated with wooden cooperage and that is capable of producing distinctive aromas the perfect sexual sporeforming form of Brettanomyces Delle Unit Describes the potential for stability against microbial activity of a dessert wine as a function ofthe ethanol and sugar content Delle Unit DU sugarwv 45 alcohol vv to be effective the DU needs to be a value of 78 or higher Density De nes the mass ofa substance per unit volume ie gcm3 or gmL Destemming Refers to the separation of grapes from stems of a cluster Dextrorotary An optically active substance is one that rotates the plane of polarized light ifthat rotation is to the right or clockwise the substance is dextrorotary Dextrose Alternate term for glucose coined because it is dextrorotary Diacetyl Metabolite principally from lactic acid bacteria but that can be produced by yeast derived from acetyl CoA and active acetaldehyde or following decarboxylation of the 5 carbon molecule 0L acetolactate responsible for a buttery or popcornrancid butter note 0 H30 J6 J3 CH3 Diammonium Phosphate DAP N H42H P04 Form of nitrogen commonly added to wine to stimulate yeast fermentation and to prevent hydrogen sulfide formation legal limits of addition vary by country of production in the United States 1 lb1000 gal 096 9 L Diatomaceous Earth DE Matrix for the filtration of wine derived from microscopic fossilized algae known as diatoms and available in different particle sizes Diethyl Dicarbonate DEDC Antimicrobial agent leading to the formation ofthe carcinogen ethyl carbamate upon reaction with amines no longer approved for use in wine production 9 o mc mc o c o b o m cm Diethyl Disulfide DEDS Volatile sulfur compound arising during or after yeast fermentation thought to derive from oxidation of methyl mercaptan reminiscent of burnt rubber or garlic H30 H20 8 S 0H2 0H3 Dihydro Combined with two atoms of hydrogen Dimer Chemical or protein species comprised oftwo molecules associated with each other via chemical bonding Dimethyl Dicarbonate DMDC Antimicrobial especially effective against yeast agent used in juices musts and wines commercially available as Velcorin hydrolyzes to methyl carbamate ethanol and carbon dioxide should be used with caution any water in solution of methyl carbamate will lead to hydrolysis and the formation of very high pressures of 002 leading to explosion ofthe container 9 P mc o c o c o cm Dimethyl Disulfide DMDS Volatile sulfur compound arising during or after yeast fermentation thought to derive from oxidation of methyl mercaptan reminiscent of cooked cabbage H30 S S 0H3 Dioecious Not selffertile having male reproductive organs in one individual and female in another in plants means staminate and pistillate owers are borne on different individuals Diploid A single cell individual or generation characterized by having two complete sets of chromosomes also called 2N Disaccharide Term for molecule containing two sugar moieties sucrose is a 20 disaccharide composed of one molecule each of glucose and fructose trehalose and maltose are disaccharides of glucose differing in the linkage ofthe two sugars lactose and melibiose are disaccharides of galactose and glucose differing in the linkage ofthe two sugars Dissociation Constant See Equilibrium Constant Dissolved Oxygen Oxygen content found in the liquid phase Disulfide General term indicating two sulfur groups occur in the molecule and are bound to each other R1 S S R2 DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid macromolecule comprised of purine and pyrimidine bases that carries genetic information and speci es RNA and protein sequence Dose Response Trial General term for an experiment with the goal of de ning the magnitude ofthe response based upon the concentration ofa substance present for example used with fining agents to determine the concentration ofthe agent needed to achieve heat stability Dry Refers to wine lacking fermentable hexose sugar generally less than 2 gL Ebuillometry Analytical method determining the concentration of a substance due to a change in the boiling point of water in wine used to measure ethanol ethanol reduces the boiling point of water Electron Transport Chain ln respiration a series of carriers through which electrons of initial high energy are converted to a lower energy state with the capture ofthe released energy as ATP occurs in the mitochondria in eukaryotic cells the terminal electron acceptor is molecular oxygen producing water in plants animals and fungi and in many but not all bacteria Electrophoresis Analytical and preparatory technique separating mixtures of molecules taking advantage of migratory behavior in an electric eld which is a function of mass charge and shape may be through a liquid gel or gas phase net negatively charged ions move towards the anode positively charged ions toward the cathode principle behind capillary electrophoresis CE and proteinpeptide separation by sodium dodecylsulfate SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis SDSPAGE and the electrophoretic separation of DNA and RNA molecules and fragments or their derivatives ELISA Enzyme Linked lmmunoSorbent Assay method ofquantitation ofa component based upon its antigenicity that is its reactability with antibodies the antibodies bind to the antigen in a concentration dependent manner in an ELISA another component or 21 marker that is detectable enzymatically or colorometrically is associated with the primary antibody allowing quantification ofthe amount of antibody in the complex by quantification ofthe readily detected bound marker which is then related to the amount ofthe substance antigen being analyzed Ellagic Acid Dimer of gallic acid produced from the hydrolysis of ellagitannins in wine thought to derive from oak rather than grapes can form a crystalline precipitate in barrel aged wines during storage in the bottle 9 c o OH HO OH HO 0 9 0 Endocarp The inner layer ofthe pericarp of a fruit as an apple or orange when it consists of two or more layers of different texture or consistency Endoplasmic Reticulum A membranous organellar structure found in eukaryotic cells involved in the synthesis and modification of membranebound membraneassociated organellar and secreted proteins Enzyme Any of numerous complex proteins that are produced by living cells and catalyze speci c biochemical reactions enzymes catalyze reactions by reducing the energy of activationenergy needed to reach a high energy transition state required that is create an energy rich state ofthe reactants enzymes are divided into several classes depending upon the nature ofthe reaction catalyzed indicated by use ofthe suffix ase holoenzyme active enzyme complex refers to the enzyme plus any required cofactors apoenzyme the enzyme in the absence of required cofactors generally inactive 22 Enzyme Class Reaction Catalyzed Substrates Hydrolases Hydrolysis addition of water Acid Anhydrides Esters Glycosidic Bonds Peptide CN Bonds Isomerases Isomerization reactions Amino Acids and Derivatives Racemases Hydroxy Acids and Derivatives Carbohydrates Ligases Formation of covalent bonds 010 gt 00 usually at the expense ofa CN gt CN high energy phosphate ATP 10 gt 00 molecule C s CS Lyases Addition reactions to double CC bonds CO CN OXidoReductases Oxidation reduction CH20H Dehydrogenases reactions CO Hydroxylases CHCH Oxidases CH2NH2 Reductases CHNH NADHNADPH Transferases Transfer of functional groups Acyl groups Kinases P04 Aldehydic groups Epicatechin A avan3ol found in wine see catechin Amineo groups Glycosyl groups Ketonic groups One carbon groups Phosphatephosphorylated protein Scontaining groups Equilibrium Constants Many chemical and biochemical reactions do not proceed to completion but instead reach an equilibrium condition at which point the forward and reverse reactions occur at the same rate such that there is no net change in substrates or products concentrations There are many factors that influence the establishment of equilibrium The Principle of Le Chatelier states that equilibrium will
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