GEOL 101 Geobiology: Lecture 18
GEOL 101 Geobiology: Lecture 18 101-017
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Natalee Stanton on Monday February 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 101-017 at University of South Carolina taught by in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Geology 101-017 in Geology at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 02/29/16
GEOL101: Geobiology – Life Interacts with the Earth Geology – the study of the physical and chemical processes that control the Earth Biology – the study of life and living organisms and their structure. Geobiology the study of how organisms have influenced and been influenced by earth’s environment Earth’s biosphere works as a system Microorganisms play a very important role in earth processes, including mineral and rock formation and destruction Microbes Singlecelled organisms including bacteria, some fungi and algae, and protozoa o Most genetically diverse group o Can grow in hostile environments o Nature’s tiny chemists All life on earth’s surface may represent > 10% (by mass) – the remainder are subsurface microbes! Biosphere – is the part of our planet that contains all of its living organisms Ecosystems are composed of organisms and geologic components that function in a balanced, interactive way I. The Biosphere as a System Organisms of the ecosystem o Producers (autotrophs) Produce their own food o Consumers (heterotrophs) Feed off something else Inputs to the ecosystem: o Carbon, nutrients, water, energy Processes and output o Metabolism, photosynthesis, respiration Biogeochemical cycle a pathway through which a chemical element or molecule moves between biologic and environmental components of an ecosystem Ex: greenhouse gases Ex: phosphorous and sulfur cycles II. How We Classify life forms Universal tree of life – the hierarchy of ancestor and descendants of all like on earth o Universal ancestor – single root o Three domains of like from the universal ancestor Paleontologist claim that the species existing today represent >0.1% of those that have existed on Earth III. Microbes: nature’s tiny chemists Extremophiles: microbes that ‘live on the edge’ o Halophiles (highly saline environments) o Acidophiles (highly acidic environments) o Thermophiles (high temperature environments) o Anaerobes (low oxygen environments? Sample Exam Questions Which of the following can change the rate of radioactive decay? a. Chemical reactions b. Changes in pressure c. Changes in temperature d. None of the above Where do basins form? a. Where tensional forces stretch the crust b. Where thick sequences of sediment are deposited c. Where a part of the crust has been heated and subsequently cools and contracts d. All of the above The study of Geobiology is defined as ____. a. The study of ancient life forms on Earth b. The study of how organisms influence and are influenced by Earth’s environments c. The study of the Earth’s environmental changes throughout time d. The study of the organisms lost during mass extinctions events
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