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Combustion Engines

by: Melissa Durgan

Combustion Engines EME 163

Melissa Durgan
GPA 3.8


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Class Notes
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This 20 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melissa Durgan on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EME 163 at University of California - Davis taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see /class/191792/eme-163-university-of-california-davis in Engineering Mechanical at University of California - Davis.


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Date Created: 09/08/15
EME163 Some Notes on Ideal Gas Mixtures De nitions m1 mass of species i M Molecular Weight of species i A71 Average molecular weight of mixture SR Universal Gas Constant SR R1 V Specl c Gas Constant p l density v i speci c volume V v p p pressure T Temperautre V Volume M Number of moles of species i 11 m 2 m1 Total mass 11 N ZN Total number ofmoles 11 q mass fractlon of specles 1 Note Thls de n1t10n 1s dlfferent than text m y WU Mole fractlon of specles 1 Note Th1s de n1t10n 1s dlfferent than text Ideal Gas Law RV m 3T mIRIT NISRT Ml NISRT NSRT p gr V 11 m R Zx 5 Average gas constant 11 First Law of Thermodynamics Steady and Open Flow System De nitions h u pv hf J CplalT enthalpy of species i h reference enthalpy Combustion gases we use hf enthalpy of formation m1 mass ow rate of species i Q Heat Transfer Rate W Work Rate rst Sum of Shetmobnnumics Steam Slam 53pm 6U5f m Inputs Outputs Inputs Z mu m Q Outputs Ztuu M W 11 11 men Q Zm u W 11 11 m NM u M1hl 1911 1quot Q iN u W 11 11 FEM hm1xZm1h1m 11 11 Another Form h m qm hm 0 WW Very useful with CHEMW6 which will be used shortly mxx rst Sum of Shetmobnnumics Closeb System Inputs Outputs 6Energy 6t Inputs Outputs W 6 6 K Q W Integrating over time we obtain U2 U1 Q12 W12 Note The above de nition neglects changes in kinetic and potential energy for the closed system By de nition UH pV or uh pv VBDC Compression Ratio VC TDC Engine cylinder volume at bottom dead center VTDC Engine VC Compression Ratio VBDC cylinder volume at top dead center Cylinder Displacement VDISPL VBDC VTDC IMPORTANT NOTE Given the Compression ratio and the cylinder displacement the volumes at bottom and top dead center can be calculated Heating Value First Law Calculations We begin by considering a form of the First Law energy balance which applies to the determination of fuel heating value The First Law balance is the following rm Q aimv t W 11 11 If there is no useful work the equation becomes Q mm wgmm Next we divide the equation by the total mass flow m and we obtain qu 739 7t where F is the enthalpy per kilogram of mixture Therefore qmwx is the heat transfer per kilogram of mixture If the mass fraction of the fuel at the inlet is y m then we find the heat transfer per kilogram of fuel by dividing by y fuzz Therefore we obtain af xcg of fuel aw y m Note The heat transfer will be a negative number since it is leaving the system however it is a representation the total energy contained in the fuel 103163 36 engines cmb Suture Wietna nes nsttuc cot Btofessot 56am 2L Emmet Spring 2008 Sue mat 22110 Computer Engine Design Problem Overall Consider the ME163 CI engine that is being used as the model for the course The purpose of this problem is to estimate the performance of a real truck under varying loads The speci c problem is to determine the power required to propel a heavy duty truck at 100 kmhr at road grades of 10 5 25 0 5 and 10 Note The grade can be de ned as the sin of the angle 0 for small angles The data for the truck drag and friction coef cient can be found in the class handout and the road grade m in uence the power calculation due to the component of the gravitational force in the direction of the vehicle motion It should also be noted that the truck may not have enough power to go up a grade at a given speed and your estimate should include the maximum speed that the truck can go up the grade All estimates should be carried out at the following conditions Engine Speed 7 1800 RPM Maximum Power Engine Fuel 7 C12H34 Dodecane Maximum Engine Equivalence Ratio 7 075 Minimum Engine Equivalence Ratio 7 005 Engine Intake Temperature 7 320 K No EGR 7 only residual gases 095 S engine inlet pressure S 30 105 S engine exhaust pressure S 15 Assume that the equivalence ratio turbocharger pressure and exhaust pressure varies Variation of Inlet and Exhaust linearly with power at the 1800 RPM condition of I I maximum power Pressures wnth Equwalence Ratio Notes 0 If the power required is more than the engine can produce just state that you need a new engine and determine the decrease in weight necessary to make the grade at 100 kmhr o For this problem you must work your way back to the indicated power by use of the powertrain ef ciency and the netpower calculation 0 Ifthe engine is capable of the power required your answer should be the engine inlet pressure the engine exhaust power and the Pressure arm 005 015 F HN P1EX equivalence ratio needed to produce the power at 1800 rpm 0 Hint Carry out calculations at the minimum and maximum power conditions as well as two intermediate positions and then interpolate to nd the conditions for the various slopes speci ed 0 For negative grades determine how much power has to be absorbed by the truck in some fashion Nyhnd SVnaIgy Drwe Easullne Engine msmmmw Ears x stmke Compresslon yam Va vevam Indumun system Ignman Sysmm Dower oulvut Torque messxon raking mam mm Imam Ezmry Daway output Vakage Hybrid 5mg Md iner MechanizalPerfumince A ummum doub e overhead cam DONG lewa ue Wm 0Cyhndm 15 um 1097 z 7 mm 1 1 rvalvecyhnder mm Vanab e Va ve mm m IMeHmence WW Mulklpnmt m m Eleamszhmetle Carma System m mmgam nosr E emumc with mm mm Xanmun mm 75 m S uuu mm 57 kw Suuu mm 52 a mm mm in Nm 2un 1pm Advanwd Teehna ogy Pamal 2m Em ssion Vehicle AT922v 1 Devmanent magnetAC synchrunuus mm 57 hp s2nnasau ypm 5n kw 120015ou rpm 295 mm a 071200 rpm can N39m 01209 rpm snov maxxmum 52am NmkaIMekzl mm LmMH 2 Gamay M Ah 2s hp 21 kw m ev uu hp 32 kW E smumcal y cuntwl id mmmuausly vanabla vinimxssmn ECVT J Locate a Dealer Request a Quote Get a Brochure Financial Solutions Calculators Your Portfolio Send me MercedesBenz news and information H i Your email s b 39 Site Map MB Worldwide Contact Us The 2000 SO 5 AMG Designed for the true performance enthusiast the twinturbocharged V12 65 AMG is our most powerful sports sedan With AMG39s legendary tradition of winning in competition the S65 AMG stands at the forefront of automotive innovation power and luxury MSRP Engine Net Power Net Torque V 16972000 AMGabuiit twinturbocharged 60L SOHC 36 valve V 12 engine 604 hp 4800 5100 rpm 738 lb ft 2000 4000 rpm Hands Free Communication System Take your calls without taking your hands off the wheel AMG Screen Saver Decorate your desktop with MercedesBenz screen savers Head Protection Air Bag Curtains Take an interactive look at the original head protection side air bags Navigation Update Program NavUpdate Maintain your navigation system39s performance and accuracy with the latest information MSRP includes 720 transportation and handling charge and excludes all taxes titledocumentary fees registration tags MercedesBenz Dealer prep lab0r and installation charges insurance optional equipment and accessories certi cate of compliance or noncompliance fees and nance charges Actual prices may vary by Dealer Deluxe Contractor Truck Power 0 Dodge Ram 2004 Contractor Special op on 20kW electric generator powered off main engine 5000 additional 15 overall efficiency gain Ability to power tools mobile office communications at remote locations Basic Four Stroke Cycle 05 Ami u prw quot 31 Mechanical and Thermodynamic Diagrams x 322 7 quot131quot gum Exhaust Compression Expansion BC TC Unburnad BC 1 80 TC 00 1 80 Crank position and angle U MW Jamilmm Aa iizifanmnv Combusnon 2 kPa 1000 Spark Ignition Fuel Injection System Fuel pressure regulator Injection valve Start valve Air ow se Eiectronic controi Unit I a Fuel lter Electric fuel pump Temperature i i i v Thermotime swrtch 39 E1 Al ance FIGURE 110 Turbocharged fourcylinder automotive sparkignition engine Courtesy Regie Nationale des U sines BMW 335i GDI Engine Diesel Engine Components and Processes ismsquot 39 Jam39s ezxt quotquot e gEEEE 1 5quot U U tl i Ignition Premixed combustion phase T 39 delay E period 5 Mixing controlled combustion phase a 39 Late combustion 301 E0 PM i l l I l i l l Id 6 160 g 170 180 190 200 210i Crank angle deg FIGURE 109 Typical 1 engine heatreleaserate diagram identifying diiferent diesel Combustion phases F ucllinjcciion lubing Delivery valve holder Fuel Fuller 1 Nozzle holder assembly wilh nozz c 12 Plunger return spring Control shew Plunger comm arm quot Guide slecvn 31 Rotaincr FIGURE 1046 Fuelinjection system with singlebarrel pump Left system layoul Right section through fuel injection pump Courtesy Robert Bosch GmbH and SA EAquot Pioneering technology with great potential for the future Bosch working together with vehicle manufacturers has developed the Commonrail System a a system in which pressure generation and injection are performed separately This allows the injection and combustion process to be configured much more flexibly The Bosch Common Rail System is a major advance in modern diesel technology It can attain maximum performance and optimum use of fuel advantages that make sound economic and environmental sense Instead of having to build up pressure before each individual injection the fuel is stored in an accumulator and kept under constant pressure So the engine is more dynamic than ever before with no loss of power Special features More economic quieter engines with lower emissions Optimum fuel pressure is maintained in all conditions Conventional injection installations can be easily modified Diesel Injection and Engine Management w Product Search Search by product name or keyword g t Start search Further Links Overview gt Glow Plugs Filters gt Sensors and Associated Parts I Common Rail System CR gt Unit injector System UIS v VP44 RadialPiston Pump Engine Performance Curves 140 39 120 Power 1 kW W O l 0 000 2000 3000 4000 5000 Engine speed rew min 350 0 9 Um I 08 gt 300 171 bsfc U 1 250 1st sfc gkWh I l O 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 Engine speed revmin FIGURE 151 Gross indicated brake and friction power Pi Pb Pf indicated brake and friction mean effective pressure indicated and brake speci c fuel consumption and mechanical ef ciency for 38dm3 six cylindcr automotive spark ignition engine at wideopen throttle Bore 968 mm stroke 86 mm rc 8 6 1 Engine Performance Map Mean piston speed ms 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 1000 l l l 1 i 300 335 gkWol bmepkPa 4 Ox 8 8 l I I E a N 8 8 LII 3 200 quotMgM365 v M 520 Wquot hw w 6 O l 1 I l 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 Engine speed rev min Performance map for 2dm3 four cylinder fastburn sparkquotignition engine showing contours of constant bsfc in grams per kilwatthom 13 Tvpical Hvbrid Con gurations Ballery l r Generator Electric olor Figure 33 Series Configuration HEV Transmission Electric Motor eneraxor Figure 3b Parallel Configuration HEV l oneramr no Inverter v j Battery gt Electric Motor Reduction Gears Transmission Figure 3C PowerSplit Configuration HEV Pow IC Engine Dev cm Toyota Motor Japan39s biggest automaker is selling fewer cars in Europe than it wants to because of shortages of diesel engines and Prius gasolineelectric models said Tadashi Arashima head of European marketing quotWe39re having some supply problemsquot Arashima said at the Geneva Motor Show quotWe don39t have quite enough diesel engines and we would like to have more Priuses but demand is so high in the US and Japan that we are having to fight to try to get themquot Toyota39s car production in Europe will rise 21 percent to 565000 vehicles this year while engine production will rise 8 percent to 466000 motors said Takis Athanasopoulos Toyota39s No2 marketing executive in Europe To help alleviate the engine shortfall the company is building a dieselmotor plant in Poland that is scheduled to start production next year Diesel motors power almost half of the cars sold in Europe according to the French carmakers association The sale of dieselpowered vehicles is increasing in Europe as their efficiency improves and because countries including France have lower taxes on diesel than gasoline Clean Diesel Vehicles Showcased in Boston Clean Diesel Drive Highlights the Latest in Diesel Technology Vehicles Coming Soon to the United States BOSTON MA US and European automakers demonstrated the latest in clean diesel technology today during a Clean Diesel Drive at the Bayside Expo Center in Boston The event hosted by the Diesel Technology Forum showcased more than a dozen clean diesel production and prototype vehicles with advanced engine technology not seen before in the United States quotWe want Massachusetts lawmakers and other government officials to experience firsthand how powerful quiet clean and fun to drive a modern diesel vehicle can bequot said Allen Schaeffer executive director of the Diesel Technology Forum quotToday39s clean diesel technology has made tremendous progressquot In addition to its many performance and durability attributes advanced diesel cars pickups and SUVs hold great promise for helping the United States achieve its energy and environmental goals Conserve Fuel Dieselpowered cars achieve 20 to 40 percent better fuel economy than gasolinepowered equivalents Four to seven of the most fuelefficient vehicles sold in the United States are dieselpowered according to the US Environmental Protection Agency Improve Energy Security A 30 percent penetration of clean diesel technology in the US passenger vehicle market by 2020 would reduce net crude oil imports by 350 000 barrels per day according to the US DOE Such a reduction is equivalent to approximately half the total energy used each day in California Reduce Greenhouse Gases Because diesel engines are inherently more fuel efficient they emit 20 to 40 percent fewer greenhouse gases than comparable gasoline enginesan important fact for those concerned about global warming tmedas eaz t awa 3 Events timeanger can Oifwroader hit35353 Facts Variatioss a gamma data Exterior gamma litteridr motes Technical data for the MClass 3 ML 270 CDI1 ML 400 CDI a ML 500 5 ML 55 AMG Number of cylindersarrangement 8N Borestroke mm 860860 Total displacement cc Rated output kW at rpm2 1844900 Rated torque Nm at rpm2 5601 7002600 Compression ratio 180 Cooling and heating system capacity l 120 Alternator VIA 132150 Battery VAh 1295 Top speed approx kmh 213 Acceleration from O to 81 100 kmlh sec3 Tyre size frontrear 27555 R 17 Fuel Fuel consumption l100 km3 diesel as per DIN EN 590 cityextrauroancombined 14788109 002 emissions grkm3 288 Fuel tank capacity l including 8312 approx reserve Turning circle diameter m 119 Kerb weight 4Iperm GVW kg 23352870 Towing capacity kg 5 brakedunbraked 3500750 Luggage capacity l in accordance with VDA 1 061 max behind 2nd row of seats 2 020 max behind 1st row of seats 4x4 Fording depth mm 500 Angle of approachdeparture8 30 30 9 Ground clearance mm8 204 Climbing abilitya39m 60 Offroad ratio 264 1 Permanent fourwheel drivepower distribution 48 52 1Standard specification with manual transmission 2Figures according to Directive 801269EEC version 199999EC a Provrsronal figures 4Figures according to Directive 801268EEC version 19991 OOEC 5Figures according to Directive 9221EC version 9548EC kerb weight fuel tank 90 full with driver 68 kg and luggage 7 kg for standardspecification vehicles Optional extras and accessories will generally increase the kerb weight and reduce the payload capacity 6Including 135kg drawbar load 7With internally mounted spare Wheel 938 I 8With internally mounted spare wheel 1886 l 9Figures according to Directive 70156EEC version 200040EC 1ORestricted angle of approachdeparture with AMG bodystyling package 29 27 11At least 60 31quot depending on surface and traction conditions it ML 350 5 Dimensions


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