CDFS-3320 Week 5 Ch. 6
CDFS-3320 Week 5 Ch. 6 CDFS-3320
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Enrique Pantoja on Monday February 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CDFS-3320 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Samantha Weir in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 333 views. For similar materials see Family Relations in Child and Family Studies at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 02/29/16
February 18, 2016 Chapter 6: Living Alone, Cohabitation, Same-Sex Unions, and Intimate Relationships Chapter Outline: Reasons for More Unmarried Singles, Demographic Changes, Economic Changes, Technological Changes, Cultural Changes, Singles – Various Living, Co-Housing in Denmark I. Reasons for increasing proportion of marrieds A. Nearly All Americans say that our families are important B. Today’s “postmodern” families are characterized by diversity C. In 1970, less than 28% of U.S. adults were single today that number is about 44% II. Demographic Changes A. Sex Ratio (number of men to women in a given society or subgroup) influences … B. Expanded educational and career options for college-educated women have lead to many postponed marriages III. Economic Changes A. Men’s earning potential has declined, relative to women’s may make marriages less attractive to both genders B. Economic disadvantage/uncertainty make marriages less available to many who might want to marry but feel they can’t financially afford it C. Average wedding budget was $27,000 IV. Technological Changes A. With effective contraception, marriages could be less attractive V. Cultural Changes A. It is now widely accepted that young people will have sexual intercourse before marriage B. As American culture gives greater weight to autonomy, many find that singlehood is more desirable than marriage C. Being unmarried has become an acceptable option D. Marriage has become less strongly defined as permanent VI. Singles – Various Living A. Living Alone - over ¼ of U.S. households. Up from 8% in 1940 B. Living Alone Together – A couple is engaged in a long-term relationship but each partner has a separate living space C. Living with Parents - About 11% of all adults of 18 live with their parents D. Group or Communal Living – communes are situations or places characterized by group living. It’s designed to provide enhanced opportunities for social support and companionship VII. Co-Housing A. Started in Demark, spread to United States B. Co-housing complexes can be a way to cope with some of the problems of aging, unattached singlehood, or single parenthood VIII. Cohabitation and Family Life A. Cohabitation - Non-marrieds living together B. One of the most important changes in family life in the past 40 years C. How cohabitation is equivalent to marriage: a. The majority of people marry without living together b. More people live together mainly as a form of courtship c. Cohabitating becomes a socially acceptable alternative to marriage d. Cohabitating becomes Indistinguishable legally and socially D. Half relationships are relatively short-term, lasting less than one year, because the couple either break up or marry (about 6 months) IX. Cohabitation as an Alternative to Unattached Singlehood and to Marriage A. Some view living together as an alt. to dating or unattached singlehood (uncommitted cohabitors) B. Others view it as an alt to marriage (committed cohabitors) C. People’s reasons for living together include the belief that marriage signifies loss of identity or stifles partner’s equality and communication D. Cohabitors are less homogamous. E. Twice as likely to be Interracial F. Less likely to put finances together G. Less likely to say they are happy with relationship X. Cohabitating Relationship A. Relation quality of long term cohabitating couples (together for at least 4 ears) differ little from marrieds in conflict levels, amount of interaction, or relationship satisfaction B. Relationship satisfaction declines in marriage and cohabiting with the addition of children Some Thoughts to Think About: Domestic partners, Residence, Bank accounts, Power of Attorney for Finances, Credit cards, Property, ect. XI. Cohabitating Parents and Outcomes for Children A. Between 10 and 20% of all births occur to a cohabitating mother. B. Perhaps half or more are planned XII. Children’s Outcomes A. Instability with cohabitation is related to problematic outcomes for children B. Cohabitating parents spend less on their children’s education than do marrieds C. Adolescents are more likely to experience earlier premarital intercourse, higher rates of school suspension, and antisocial and delinquent behaviors D. Compared to single-parent homes, children do benefit economically IN-CLASS ACTIVITY XIII. Same Sex Couples and Family Life A. In the absence of access to legal marriage, partners may publicly declare their commitment in ceremonies among friends or in some congregations and churches B. Same-sex partners highly value love, faithfulness and commitment 9like heterosexual couples) C. More equality and role sharing than in heterosexual marriages D. Same-sex couples must daily negotiate their private relationship within a heterosexual (often heterosexist) world E. Discrimination adds stress and can lower mental health and quality F. Children of gay male and lesbian parents are generally well adjusted, with no noticeable differences from children of heterosexual parents in cognitive ability, behavior or emotional development G. No evidence says children are more confused about their sexual orientation XIV. Social Networks A. For singles, it’s important to develop and maintain supportive social networks of friends and family XV. Maintaining Supportive Social Networks and Life Satisfaction A. Life satisfaction is associated with marital and economic status. B. Living alone can be lonesome. C. A crucial part of one’s support from social network is valued friendship D. Unattached singles point to benefits of their lifestyle, including a greater sense of control over their lives. Review 1. The text cites four social factors that may encourage young people today to postpone marriage or not to marry at all. Which of the following is NOT one of these? A. Rejection of marriage as an institution 2. An emerging alternative to marriage is ____ where couples engage in a long-term relationship, but each partner also maintains a separate dwelling. B. Living alone together 3. Communal living is designed to provide ____ C. Social support and companionship 4. The proportion of young adults living with parents rose sharply between 1995 and 2002. B. False February 18, 2016 Chapter 7: Marriages From Social Institution to Private Relationship Chapter Outline: XVI. Marital Status: The Changing Picture XVII. Facts About Families. Marital Status – The Increasing Proportion of Unmarried(s) A. The Never-Married – By 2009, medium age at first marriage for both men and women had rise to 25.9 for women and 28.1 for men B. The Divorced – The growing divorce rate has contributed to the increased number of singles. In 2008, 9% of men and 12% of women C. The Widowed – Between 2 and 3% for men, and between 9 and 12% for women. The proportion of older people in the population as increased and an older person has a greater risk of losing a spouse XVIII. The Time-Honored Marriage Premise: Permanence and Sexual Exclusivity A. Expectations of permanence derive from the fact that historically marriage was a practical institution B. Marriage in the US legally requires monogamy, along with expectations of sexual exclusivity in which spouses “put their partner first” Sexual Exclusivity: 1. Polygamy: having more than 1 spouse 2. Polyamory: having many lovers 3. Swinging: XIX. Polygamy A. Polygamy has been illegal in the US since 1878, when the US Supreme Court ruled that freedom to practice the Mormon religion did not extend to having multiple wives XX. Polyamory A. Refers to marriages in which one or both spouses retain the option to sexually love others in addition to their spouse. Polyamourous spouses agree to openly acknowledge sexual relationships with others while maintaining marriage relationship XXI. Swinging A. is a marriage arrangement in which couples exchange partners in order to engage in purely recreational sex XXII. A Changing Marriage Premise 1. 2. 3. **Companionate Marriage Bond** – couples are bound together by companionships, couple with a gendered division of labor, pride in performing spousal and parenting roles, and hope for “the American Dream” – a home of their own and a comfortable domestic life together XXIII. Individualized Marriage A. Four interrelated characteristics distinguish individualized marriage: 1. It is optional 2. Spouses roles are flexible – negotiable and renegotiable 3. Its expected rewards involve love, communication and emotional intimacy 4. It exists in conjunction with a vast diversity of family forms **The Individualized Marriage Bond** – Spouses in .. remain together because the feel self actualization, intimacy and expressively communicated emotional support in their unions Decline or Change? Viewpoints A Decline View: Individualism has caused moral weakening and self-indulgence A Change View: Nostalgia about the “good old days” leads to incorrect assumptions. For example, large families with many children and high death rates for parents with young children meant many children were not raised in two-parent households XXIV. Deinstitutionalized Marriage: Examining The Consequences A. [Waite] found that children in married families were about half as likely to drop out of high school and reported more frequent contact and better-quality relationships with their parents B. Were significantly less likely to live in poverty XXV. Single-Parent Families A. Hispanics and African Americans have higher rates of single-parent families B. More than 13.3 million US children under age 18 live at or below poverty C. Consequences include: malnutrition, unhealthy neighborhoods, increased physical socio-emotional and behavior problems, less academic success, and increased exposure to violence XXVI. Valuing Marriage – The Policy Debate A. From a change perspective, policy advocates view poverty as causing environments with negative consequences B. From a decline perspective, there are concerns about “family breakdown” which includes the amount of money spent on welfare for poverty level single mothers, ect. XXVII. Covenant Marriage A. Type of legal marriage, in which partners agree to be bound by a marriage “covenant” B. Three states have enacted covenant marriage laws – Louisiana, Arizona, and Arkansas C. Couples are required to get premarital counseling and may divorce only after being separated for two years or if imprisoned, desertion for one year, adultery, or domestic abuse is proved in court XXVIII. Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconcilation Act A. Federal law authorized Temporary Assistance for Needy Families XXIX. Happiness and Life Satisfaction: How Does Marriage Matter? A. Both husbands and wives are far more likely than others to say they are “Very Happy” XXX. Marital Satisfaction and Choices Throughout Life A. Preparation for Marriage 1. Family life courses and premarital counseling provide guidance and skills for marriage and family 2. Research shows they do improve communication skills and relationship quality at least in the short term 3. Success also depends on the personality traits of the individual XXXI. Age At Marriage, Marital Stability and Satisfaction A. Medium age for married couples: 26 Women and 28 Men B. Odds of marital stability increase with age at marriage C. Spouses who married after 30 reported lower marital satisfaction XXXII. The First Years of Marriage A. Money, Sexual Frequency, Agreeing on How to Spend Time Together XXXIII. Creating couple Connection A. Marriage is happier when both parties: 1. Both spouses are working 2. Keep relationship a high priority 3. Enjoy leisure activities together 4. Consciously and continuously strive to maintain intimacy 5. Supportive and positive communication REVIEW In the US. Remains the most socially acceptable and stable gateway to family life. A. Marriage What is the key function of marriages for most Americans? B. Love and ongoing emotional support With a group of other married couples, Melissa and Bobby regularly exchange partners in order to recreationally have sex. D. Swinging The text lists four interrelated characteristics which distinguish individualized marriage. Which of the following is NOT one of these? D. It is economically practical