General Psychology PSC 001
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This 59 page Class Notes was uploaded by Karianne Muller III on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 001 at University of California - Davis taught by Elizabeth Post in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see /class/191795/psc-001-university-of-california-davis in Psychlogy at University of California - Davis.
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Date Created: 09/08/15
PSC 1 Introductory Psychology Fall 2010 Exam II Terms amp Concepts Understand the meaning of these terms and you will perform well on the second exam Items in italics indicate material not discussed in class but covered in your textbook Learning definition of learning classical conditioning Pavlov s experiment process of conditioning UCS UCR CS CR discrimination extinction spontaneous recovery conditioned emotion response aversion learning taste eg biopreparedness amp the Garcia effect equipotentiality operant Skinnerian conditioning Thorndike s law of effect punishment amp reinforcement negativepositive schedules of reinforcement other aspects of leaming latent learning insight learning socialobservational learning vicarious conditioning Memory memory processes encoding storage retrieval levels of processing Craik amp Lockhart s levels structural phonemic semantic sensory memory amp sensory registers shortterm memory STM now called working memory maintenance vs elaboration duration of 20 seconds capacity of 7 2 items chunking Peterson amp Peterson forgetting in STM Memory cont longterm memory LTM serialposition curve primacyrecency effects structure of LTM declarativeprocedural implicit explicit etc encoding specificity principle context vs statedependence semantic networks false memories effect of schemas on recall forgetting decay vs interference retroactive proactive interference recognition vs recall role of hippocampus anterograde v retrograde amnesia Language amp Thought the cognitive revolution definition of language nature of language symbolic semantic generative structured milestones of language development language acquisition behaviorist theories nativist theories Chomsky interactionist theories language in animals Kanzi Washoe dolphins etc classes of problems inducing structure arrangement transformation Language amp Thought cont barriers to problemsolving irrelevant information functional fixedness mental set unnecessary constraints cultural aspects eld independence algorithms amp heuristics availability representativeness ignoring base rates conjunction fallacy evolutionary approaches Simon 7 bounded rationality pitfalls in decision making gambler s fallacy overestimating the improbable overconfidence effect Intelligence amp Testing historical definition via testing aptitude vs achievement vs intell tests history of intelligence testing Binet s original measurement Terman amp the StanfordBinet scale Weschler amp the WAIS how intelligence was is computed for each evidence for heritability of intelligence family amp twin studies evidence for role of environment adoption studies reaction range theories of intelligence psychometric Spearman s g amp s factors Cattell s uid vs crystallized Thurstone s abilities cognitiveinfoprocessing Stemberg s triarchic theory contextual experiential componential Gardener s multiple intelligences reliability amp validity Motivation amp Emotion definition of motive theories drive incentive evolutionary hunger amp eating brain regulation LH amp VMH paraventricular nucleus glucostatic theory insulin amp leptin environmental factors sex amp sexual behavior evolutionary role of mate choice crosscultural evidence hormonal regulation pheromones environmental factors Coolidge effect heritability ofobesity origins of homosexuality Masters amp Johnson s work stages of sex response achievement motivation definition description Thematic Apperception Test emotion three elements cognitive physiological behavioral primary emotions theories JamesLange Cannonbard Schacter s 2factor evolutionary primary emotions role of amygdala universalcrosscultural aspects sociallyengagingdisengaging Human Development motor development maturation cephalocaudal trend proximodistal trend main stages in fetal development role of maternal nutrition etc L Introduction to PsyCholpgy L cuue6 Learnlng inquot9hqwqs99 Learning Learning as Association Classical conditioning t l hr Operant conditioning llvlllgl Cognitivesocial learning l lgearnii Associative Non associative l Habituati on 000w 0000000000 Classical Conditioning QM Stimuli Conditioning neutral Reinforcement ObserVatlonal unconditioned positive or negative C0 gnitive conditioned Punishment 39 Response positive or negative 39 unconditioned Reinforcement condltloned schedule ratio or interval 1atent learning Insight social learning xed or variable 00000 What is learning Learning an adaptive process through which experience modi es preeXisting behavior and understanding Important questions to ask What gets learned How does learning occur Basic Terms to Know Learning any relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience Conditioning learning associations between events that occur in an organism39s environment Association It all began with Aristotle Laws of association contiguity 2 events will become associated if experienced together in time similarity Obj ects that resemble each other are likely to become associated Association This led to a school of thought called associationism All complex thought is simply elementary perceptions that have become associated and recombined Learning is all about forming associations between things that tend to occur together Does not account for nonassociative learning organisms can learn things without associating stimuli Example Habituation Forget stimuli around us that aren39t meaningful to us t Concept Check 0 After Eliot had been in Mexico for two weeks the food no longer seemed as fiery hot as it had when he first arrived Eliot s taste buds had undergone A sensitization B extinction C habituation D Vicarious conditioning Associative Learning 2 types of associative learning classical conditioning operant conditioning aka instrumental learning 0 Conditioning learning associations between events that occur in an organism39s environment Learning Learning as Association Classical conditioning How it works Other aspects of classical conditioning quotConditioned conditions Operant conditioning Cognitive social learning 2 Pen recording on cylinder Pavlov 3 8 Research httpWWWVoutubecomwatchvCpoLxEN54ho Mmg m am the mnmsumulusms dogs nul Tune 0 s I quotIn um um sumulus sum the ox resume to I is a Saxlmlun wndnluned response 21 Summry An numnauy neural sllmuLus mmzs lo did a xesw n Hum ll um um Wevlanslv le 9 1007 Thomson Higher Education http Wwwyoutube comwatchvcP5 lCleKPMampfe aturerelated Classical Conditioning Tips Think of Conditioned learned is part of an association that is conditional on learning an association l l l tlll conditioned part of an association that eXist without learning Classical Conditioning Terms to Know Neutral Stimulus NS Unconditioned Stimulus US Naturally elicits an automatic response Unconditioned Response UR o A natural automatic response to US Conditioned Stimulus CS As the NS it did not naturally elicit the UR 0 After being repeatedly paired with the US the NS becomes the CS and CS can elicit behavior like UR Conditioned Response CR 0 The automatic response to the CS S m 0 W H W 0 H g m n 0 mm d H 0 C mid w S S Fa C i Classical Conditioning Tips part 2 Tips for determining which stimuli and responses in an example are assigned which The NS becomes the CS so NS CS The CR is the same response as the UR except it is elicited by the CS instead of the US so CR Other Aspects of Classical Conditioning Stimulus generalization amp discrimination llllllll Extinction amp spontaneous recovery l Stimulus Generalization Stimulus Generalization the learned tendency to exhibit a CR to a broad range of stimuli similar to a CS 900 950 1000 1050 1100 CS Sound of buzzer hertz 1 1 1 l 1 H Amount of salivation CR lt1 111xt41 Stimulus Discrimination What if there were no limits to stimulus generalization Stimulus Discrimination the learned tendency to exhibit a CR only to a restricted range of stimuli very similar to a CS Complementary process to stimulus generalization Extinction amp Spontaneous Recovery 24hour 24hour rest rest 15 7 t l I a V 1 1o 39 3 3 1 Extinction E acquisition I CS atone1 spontaneous E Q ll 93 ril39w x ovary g I CSalone a 5 39 g i V Second g I Spontaneous a I Iecovery I CS altme I s 2007 Thomson Hbgher Eduoamm 00000060000600000060000ot l t lllll 006000000000600000000000d Concept Check Mateo moves into a new apartment Soon afterward he is taking a shower when he hears his son ush the toilet and the water suddenly becomes extremely hot causing Mateo to jump After a few ushings during his showers Mateo notices a change in his behavior he jumps and experiences fear whenever he hears a toilet ushing For Mateo the ushing of a toilet has become A an unconditioned stimulus UCS B a conditioned stimulus CS C an unconditioned response UCR D a conditioned response CR Other Aspects of Classical Cond knnng Higher Order Conditioning See text p 240 Conditional Emotional Responses oooooooooooooooooooonooo66 Taste Aversion Biopreparedness l l Conditioned Conditions Phobias conditioned emotional response Little Albert httpwwwyoutubecomwatchvM2Ns3WViaXW Immune system function conditioned immune responses httpwwwlearnerorgdiscoveringpsychologyOSeO 8expandhtmlpopyesamppid1529 May be useful in humans to suppress immune response that rejects transplanted organs Can be conditioned to elevate immune system response l t quotConditioned Conditionsquot Continued Conditioned Taste Aversion Aversion is developed to food eaten soon before feeling very sick ultilllltl ll often only requires one pairing of the CS and UCS it39s okay if there is a long delay between the CS eating the food and the US feeling sick The food doesn39t need to be the UCS llllllj ll O O O O 4 C O O r A O O r O O C O O O Q Equipotentiality amp The Garcia Effect Equipotentiality any conditioned stimulus has an equal potential for becoming associated with any unconditioned stimulus shown not to be true eg rats 0 Biopreparedness Avoidance Avoidance avoidance No No Avoidance avoidance avoidance 000baoooooooooooooouooboob Learning Learning as Association Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Law of effect Reinforcement and punishment Other aspects of operant conditioning Cognitive social learning Thorndike s Puzzle BOX 00000000000000000000000000 htt www outubecomwatchvVk6H7Uk 6T0ampfeaturerelated Law of Effect Thorndike s work led to a new law of learning the law of effect l Definition an animal s tendency to reproduce a behavior depends on the behavior s effect on the environment and the consequent effect on the animal NH B F Skinner 00000000000500 Extended and formalized many of Thorndike s ideas Organisms learn responses by operating on the environment Operant conditioning Primary aim was to analyze how behavior is changed by its consequences htt Www outubecomwatchvmm5FG E BYampfeaturerelated oobobooo Basic Components of Operant Conditioning Operant an action Reinforcement or punishment Reinforcement increases the likelihood that a behavior will occur again Punishment decreases the likelihood that a behavior will occur again Can be positive adding a stimulus or negative removing a stimulus Consequence Matrix Supply a stimulus Remove a stimulus Negative Punishment time out Desirable Positive Reinforcement give candy Stimulus Undesirable Positive Negative Stimulus Punishment Reinforcement hit remove chore Punishment DECREASES behavior s frequency Reinforcement INCREASES behavior s frequency Speaker Signal zghrs To food dispenser b Cumulative recorder d Paper direction Series of rapid e on responses response Not responding Reinforcement slash nmmmwwmmm Figure 613 Skinner box and cumulative recorder U0Dalp uad gt 5 O I I 7 TWO Klnds of Remforcement O 7 Process Behavior Consequence Effectonbehavlor C e P if 39 39 as we reinforcement v i I s I Response Press lever i C C Negative r reinforcement K 39A R espouse Presslever I a 2507 Thumscm Higher Educnlion O Manipulating Undesirable Stimuli Process Behavior Consequence Effect on behavior Negative quot reinforcement it Response Press lever Punishment Response Press lever E 2D 7 Thamsnn Higher Education Figure 620 Comparison of negative reinforcement and punishment TWO Kinds of Punishment PUNISHMENT 1 positive Beliavior Pf sentatib of Freduency of You tpych a hot iroh an unp lga sarnt beh ayior dggreasles stimulus You no longer touch Your hand is burn d hot ir ns PUNISHMENT 2 Penalty negative Behavior Renjoval of a thqueny of You39re careless with plgasantwsqimulus behavipr decreases your ic39e cr39eam cdne TheJc39e Cream falls You39r39e nbt as car ele ss on the g round With the ne xt cone O I O O O O C O O a A O O O O r O Q J 0000600d Concept Check 000000006000660060 Ihab knew he needed to study for his eXam He decided that he would make a tape containing all the important information and listen to it while he slept Unfortunately Ihab unked the exam When he got his test back he said quotThat39s the last time I use a tape recorder to help me study Ihab s remark indicates that he experienced What behaviorists call A classical conditioning B positive reinforcement C negative reinforcement D punishment J C Operant Conditioning quotThe Big Bang Theoryquot video clip A v C O O O O O O O O O httpwwwvoutubecomwatchvJA96Fba WHk Was there a Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Positive Punishment Negative punishment Other Aspects of Operant Conditioning Variable Schedules of Reinforcement Fixed ratio FR Fixed interval Fl Variable ratio VR Variable interval VI l l ooobboooOOboOMood Intern1ntentIkeinforcen16nt Schedules U inobobooob Predictable npredictable On the Average Number of necessary responses Time that must first pass Fixed Ratio FR Get 10th yogurt free Fixed Interval Fl Studying for exams Variable Ratio VR Slot machine Variable Interval VI Checking for mail Schedules of Reinforcement 06066 Variable ratio 1 U1 0 Variable interval Number of responses 50 Time in minutes Adapted from quotTeaching Machinesquot by BF Skinner Copyright 1961 by Scienti c American Inc All rights reserved httpwwwvoutube comwatchvI cthi erAampfeaturerelated C O O o O O O r O C O O I r O O Q Schedules of Reinforcement aasaaaaasaoooss9 a 25323 46 gnu 3quot 7 N 7 a 3 Schedules of Reinforcement O O C e C O O O O O r O J O O O O r lt O O O Q Number of responses N U1 0 Variable ratio Fixed interval Varlable interval 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Time in minutes Adapted from quotTeaching Machinesquot by BF Skinner Copyright 1961 by Scienti c American Inc All rights reserved Concept Check J oshua39s mother decided to use positive reinforcement to get Joshua to clean up his room So she checked the room every Friday evening and if it was neat Joshua received a dollar As a result Joshua only cleaned his room on Friday mornings The rest of the week it was a mess Without substantially increasing the reward or having to keep tabs on how many times he39s cleaned his room since it was last inspected how could Joshua39s mother get him to keep his room clean more often coooood 060000600000 0 A By using a xedinterval schedule B By using a xedratio schedule C By using a variableinterval schedule D By using a variableratio schedule t llllll 0060000 Other Aspects of Operant Conditioning Stimulus control I seetext Shaping p245246 Misbehavior evolutionary aspects instinctive drift Breland amp Breland 1961 o The tendency for an organism to revert to instinctive behaviors that can interfere with conditioned behaviors Learning Learning as Association Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Cognitive social learning Latent learning Insight Social learning Cognitive Processes in Learning Behaviorists Not interested in role of conscious mental activity in learning Cognitive Psychologists Learning may also result from mental processes Classical and operant conditioning helps to detect causality l learning Which is not apparent in the learner39s behavior at the time of learning but which manifests later when a su itable motiV at ion and ci rc umstances appear Group C relnforced on day I I Grou p B never reinforced Group A reinforced on each trial Mean number of errors 10 H 12 Days Insight Chica l Grande 000uobbobowboooooobtooouw Konsul and Sultan use tools to reach Ar WA V Wkimj bananas WwwyoutubecomwatchvySMh1mBi3c1ampfeaturerelated Observational Learning Learning by watching others Vicarious conditioning Also called social learning or modeling 0 Bandura s Bobo Doll Experiment Pp 259262 0000sobuoboobooooootoooool 0000oooodoooooooob0000600l Lean ng Bandura A Ross D amp Ross 8 A 1963 Imitation of Immedialed aggressive models Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 66 311 bservatkn1al 14 m i 812 m O 39510 m 2 8 8 Cl 2 E 6 E g 4 2 2 Control groups Experimental groups Aggressive model rewarded Aggressive model punished Nonaggressive model No model Observational Learning Requires Attention Retention Ability to reproduce the behavior Motivation Bandura s work continues to contribute to social change worldwide httpwwwpopulationorg PCIMedia lboobooo iobooooooodnidoii The Of ce Altoid Video Clip httpWWWbreakcon usercontentZOOW 1 1 the0fficea1t0idexperiment 1499823 Extra Credit up to 3 points Written response to quotThe Of cequot Altoid Video httpWwwbreakcomusercontent2OO9l lth eof cealtoideXperiment1499823 Is this classical conditioning or operant conditioning Why do you think that If it39s classical conditioning what are the UCS UCS CS and CR If it39s operant conditioning what is the stimulus response paring To get full points the argument must be cogent and accurate Page length should not exceed 2 pages double spaced 12point font Due at the beginning of class Fri 1022 0000vobbobotbooooooioooouw ng Want to watch a Video about these topics httpWWWlearnerorgdiscoveringpsvchol ogyO86086Xpandhtmlpop esamppid152 t x u 0 y km a h T Questions oooooooa Factors Affecting Conditioning Success Re exive behaviors work best Timing Simultaneous conditioning CS and UCS begin and end together Shortdelayed conditioning CS begins just before the UCS end together Trace conditioning CS begins and ends before UCS is presented Classical Conditioning The Of ce Video clip What was the Neutral Stimulus NS Wanting an Altoid Unconditioned Stimulus US Being offered an Altoid Unconditioned Response UR Conditioned Stimulus CS Sound of the computer rebooting Conditioned Response CR Wanting an Altoid which presumably causes salivating
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