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Comm162 Week 8 Notes

by: Erica Evans

Comm162 Week 8 Notes Comm162

Erica Evans
GPA 3.9

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Notes from 2/24
Campaigns, Voting, Media
Shanto Iyengar
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erica Evans on Monday February 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Comm162 at Stanford University taught by Shanto Iyengar in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Campaigns, Voting, Media in Communication Studies at Stanford University.

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Date Created: 02/29/16
Comm162   2/24/2016       Biographical  ads   • Candidates  de-­‐emphasize  their  wealth       Image  vs.  Issue  spots     • Image  focuses  on  competence,  integrity,  or  “the  average  guy”     • ^  This  is  not  substantive.  These  ads  are  meant  to  develop  likeability   • Issue  focuses  on  performance  or  policy  points     • Attack  ads  dominate  today     • I  am  “  “  and  I  support  this  message  à  a  regulation  in  2004  to  cut  down  on   allegations  that  are  not  true  -­‐-­‐  basically  shaming  candidates  into  being  more   positive.  This  only  applies  to  the  candidate’s  own  advertisements.  Super-­‐Pacs   or  others  don’t  have  to  do  this.       Performance  voting   • Peace  and  prosperity  are  indicators  of  performance     • Evaluate  on  salient  issues:  economy,  war,  etc.  #1  key  indicator  is   unemployment.    No  one  cares  about  climate  change.       Issue  Ownership   • Extensions  on  gender  ownership  à  women  might  be  better  on  healthcare   and  education  because  they  are  seen  as  caretakers/nurturers.  But  women   would  be  seen  as  soft  on  crime  and  national  security.     • Some  issues  can  be  temporarily  “leased”  à  Bush  on  education,  Clinton  on   crime-­‐immigration     • Wedge  appeals:  advertising  on  values  rather  than  issues.     • Ex:  inserting  race  into  the  voting  decision.     • Republicans  should  be  more  likely  to  insert  race  because  most  blacks  are   democrat,  but  there  are  a  lot  more  whites  in  America  –  if  they  make  it  about   being  white,  Republicans  will  win.     • “Law  and  order”  as  a  coded  appeal  to  race  in  1968     • LA  riots  in  1992     • Rise  of  illegal  immigration  in  1990’s       Advertising  as  Agenda-­‐Control:  the  1994  Wilson-­‐Brown  Campaign     • Campaign  strategy  can  overcome  things  like  retrospective  voting   • Wilson  was  the  incumbent  and  the  economy  was  bad.  Wilson  changed  the   dialogue  to  the  issue  of  crime  and  Brown  (female  democrat)  fell  into  the  trap.   She  should  have  stuck  with  the  economy,  but  once  the  topic  was  crime  she   had  no  chance  against  a  male  republican.       Negative  advertising:     • 3  categories     • 1)  Attack  ad  –  exclusively  negative     • 2)  Promotional  ad  –  exclusively  positive     • 3)  Contrast  –  has  both  positive  and  negative,  but  it  does  not  have  to  be   balanced.  It  could  be  a  negative  ad  that  has  one  positive  statement.       Ad  Negativity     • Karl  Rove  mentality  –  consultants  urge  candidates  to  do  more  negative  ads   because  they  are  effective     • Ads  are  meant  to  catch  people’s  eyes     • Move  away  from  descriptive  journalism  to  analytical  journalism     • It  is  easier  to  get  free  media  when  ads  are  negative  and  attacking     • “Swift  boat”  ad  of  John  Kerry  (most  famous  negative  ad  of  all  time).  Less  than   a  million  Americans  saw  it,  but  80%  of  Americans  knew  about  it  after  news   coverage.    


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