Comm162 Week 8 Notes
Comm162 Week 8 Notes Comm162
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erica Evans on Monday February 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Comm162 at Stanford University taught by Shanto Iyengar in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Campaigns, Voting, Media in Communication Studies at Stanford University.
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Date Created: 02/29/16
Comm162 2/24/2016 Biographical ads • Candidates de-‐emphasize their wealth Image vs. Issue spots • Image focuses on competence, integrity, or “the average guy” • ^ This is not substantive. These ads are meant to develop likeability • Issue focuses on performance or policy points • Attack ads dominate today • I am “ “ and I support this message à a regulation in 2004 to cut down on allegations that are not true -‐-‐ basically shaming candidates into being more positive. This only applies to the candidate’s own advertisements. Super-‐Pacs or others don’t have to do this. Performance voting • Peace and prosperity are indicators of performance • Evaluate on salient issues: economy, war, etc. #1 key indicator is unemployment. No one cares about climate change. Issue Ownership • Extensions on gender ownership à women might be better on healthcare and education because they are seen as caretakers/nurturers. But women would be seen as soft on crime and national security. • Some issues can be temporarily “leased” à Bush on education, Clinton on crime-‐immigration • Wedge appeals: advertising on values rather than issues. • Ex: inserting race into the voting decision. • Republicans should be more likely to insert race because most blacks are democrat, but there are a lot more whites in America – if they make it about being white, Republicans will win. • “Law and order” as a coded appeal to race in 1968 • LA riots in 1992 • Rise of illegal immigration in 1990’s Advertising as Agenda-‐Control: the 1994 Wilson-‐Brown Campaign • Campaign strategy can overcome things like retrospective voting • Wilson was the incumbent and the economy was bad. Wilson changed the dialogue to the issue of crime and Brown (female democrat) fell into the trap. She should have stuck with the economy, but once the topic was crime she had no chance against a male republican. Negative advertising: • 3 categories • 1) Attack ad – exclusively negative • 2) Promotional ad – exclusively positive • 3) Contrast – has both positive and negative, but it does not have to be balanced. It could be a negative ad that has one positive statement. Ad Negativity • Karl Rove mentality – consultants urge candidates to do more negative ads because they are effective • Ads are meant to catch people’s eyes • Move away from descriptive journalism to analytical journalism • It is easier to get free media when ads are negative and attacking • “Swift boat” ad of John Kerry (most famous negative ad of all time). Less than a million Americans saw it, but 80% of Americans knew about it after news coverage.
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