Week 7 Notes ANTH 102
Week 7 Notes ANTH 102 ANTH 102
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by vscobee2 on Monday February 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 102 at University of Illinois at Chicago taught by Rory Dennison in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 268 views. For similar materials see Intro to Archaeology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Illinois at Chicago.
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Date Created: 02/29/16
Week 7 Notes Neolithic and Domestication: Mesolithic Settlement Patterns o Use of base camps o Scheduling: Moving base camps for the best seasonality (seasonal resources) o Typical forager week = 4045 hours Vedbaek Valley, Denmark (7ka) o 50+ sites o Coastal base camps o Vedbaek Site: Special purpose site Cemetery Trio buried (male, female, infant) – proof of violence Remains include a newborn on a swan wing, flint knife, pillow, pendants, decorations (mother) – evidence of social stratification o Vaenget Nord Site Special purpose site Seasonal scheduling evidence Carrier Mills, Black Earth Sites o In IL o 60004500ya (Archaic period) o Base camps o Collector strategies o Foraging technology o 13 acres at the Black Earth Site, 143 total o 3 middens o Specialized technology: Bone pins – signaled social identity; there were regional differences o Cemetery: 154 excavated and 500+ total Burial goods (25%) – signified age, sex, and roles; evidence of achieved status Neolithic Agriculture: o Began around 10kya o A way of obtaining food that involves the use of domesticated plants and animals o The change in the relationship between people and the land o Domestication is complete when humaninduced changes make a species dependent on humans for reproduction and survival Creates mutual interdependence o Domestication causes changes that are preferable to people but can be damaging to the organism in the wild (harming rates of survival/reproduction) o Domesticated species have permanent physical changes from human manipulation o Crops domesticated before animals Collection v. Production (old forager methods v. new domestication methods) Cultivation: clearing fields, preparing soil, weeding, watering, protecting plants from animals o Animal domestication in terms of Wild v. Tame v. Domesticated Domesticated animals are nonterritorial, docile, useful, have a social hierarchy, and can be rapidly reproduced/bred “Tame” refers to individual animals People breed animals with the best traits to pass down those genes Neolithic Revolution o New Stone Age o A revolution because major changes in how people interact with the environment/world o Started and spread out from important locations – these places mastered domestication first and spread their knowledge Centers of Domestication o SW Asia (12kya) Crops: Barley, beet, carrot, chickpea, date, fig, lentil, olive, pea, wheat Animals: Goat, pig, sheep Food scheduling – plants used but not yet domesticated Fertile Crescent = great resourceful environment for domestication Mediterranean climate and diverse topography o E and SE Asia (12kya) Crops: Apricot, banana, barley, cucumber, millet, peach, rice, soybean, sugar cane, taro, turnip Animals: Chicken, horse Some things (pig) independently domesticated at different centers Lots of domestication by ~8kya o SubSaharan Africa (7ka) Crops: Colanut (used for Coca Cola); millet, oil palm, okra, sorghum, tef, watermelon, yam Animals: Cattle, donkey o N America (5kya) Crops: Cranberry, goosefoot, sunflower Less domesticates than other regions o Mesoamerica (10kya) Crops: Avocado, beans, chili pepper, chocolate, corn, cotton, gourd, manioc, papaya, peanuts, pineapple, squash, tobacco, tomato, vanilla Animals: Dog, rabbit, turkey o S America (10kya) Crops: Chocolate, potato, quinoa, sweet potato Animals: Guinea pig, llama Origins of Agriculture o Oasis Hypothesis By V. Gordon Childe Environmental shifts (less rain) in SW Asia caused plants/animals to cluster around water sources (oasis), humans followed these resources and influenced the growth of plants/animals (the start of domestication) Proven to be inaccurate Requires a very specific set of circumstances This wasn’t really a period of dry weather, it was actually wetter o Natural Habitat/“Hilly Flanks” Hypothesis Hilly Flanks = a region of hillsides in the Fertile Crescent Created by Robert Braidwood Environment shifted from dry to very good in a short expanse of land This good land could be used for domestication Based on historical comparisons/research Not universally applicable – many only true for this specific region o Demographic Pressure Hypothesis By Kent Flannery and Lewis Binford Population pressure demanded agricultural advancements Region had a limiting factor for what it could support Carrying capacity: Max number of species that can be present in/supported by a region – most that can be fed with the available resources If population exceeds the carrying capacity, naturally occurring events will happen to lower the population (starvation and even war) Agriculture developed out of need for large population size to survive Critical Factors for Agriculture o Environmental changes o Populationresource imbalance (demographic pressure hypothesis) o Restricted mobility Decreased mobility/increased sedentism Can’t move to a different region in search of food It’s unsure what direction the causality goes in Consequences of Agriculture o Physical changes in humans Agriculture was more labor intensive than huntinggathering, resulting in injuries and degenerative diseases like arthritis Worse dental health (grains stuck to teeth) – cavities led to infection o Overpopulation Increased population and density More disease – could also be transferred from animals to people More organization/centralization – the need to regulate/control/restrict people o Health People less healthy Less nutrition because people used a single resource in a large amount as opposed to the diverse diets of huntergatherers In the last 100 years humans have rereached the avg. height of the Mesolithic o Effects on Nature Environmental degradation Overgrowing on the same fields over many years led to infertile soil Evidence of Agriculture o Indirect Evidence of the use of a product, but not the product itself Impressions of cereal grains in pottery (storage jars) Ex. Grinding stones that were used to process/prepare grains o Direct: Ex. Pollen – domesticated plant pollen looks different from wild strains Can look at microscopic phytoliths Carbonized food remains (especially cereal and seeds) – burned in middens or fire pits Agriculture and Settlement in SW Asia: Fertile Crescent o Zagros and Taurus Mountains o Marshes o Mediterranean climate o Wild and diverse resources Developments Timeline o Permanent villages 11000 BCE o Cultivated plants 9000 BCE o Herd animals 8500 BCE o Pottery 7500 BCE Cultural/Stylistic Periods o Kebaran and Geometric Period (2500015000 BCE) Preagriculture Nomadic huntergatherers Seasonal movement Use wild grains (not domestication) Microlithic tools – no ground stones yet Ohalo II Site (19400 BP) on Sea of Galilee Coast o Natufian Period (1300010000 BCE) During the transition to Neolithic Preagriculture Permanent villages A dozen stone house structures Permanency because of environmental shifts (more rain – resources that thrived and were easier to use) Extensive use of wild plants/animals to support village life Very mobile prior to this point Evidence of food from ground stone artifacts (mortars, pestles, bowls, plates) Sickle blades used on cereal grasses Human remains with cavities – proof of grains/starches Used a wider variety of resources Ex. Shellfish (Nile Valley) and Obsidian (Anatolian) Buried their dead in the villages, often under houses or abandoned storage pits Secondary burial: bury the dead, body decays, clean/preserve bones, rebury Cultural art shown in carvings and plasters applied to skeletal remains (skulls) Dorothy Garrod – 1929 Mount Carmel Excavations Coined the term Natufian ‘Ain Mallaha Site (110009000 BCE) One of the earliest villages 200300 people – very large and unique Round houses with stone foundations Evidence of hearths and storage bins Started to use things that were later domesticated Hayonim Cave Permanent circular houses Middens Graves outside homes o Younger Dryas Climate (108009500 BCE) Return to a nearglacial climate at the start of the Holocene Mini Ice Age Cold and dry Possibly caused food stress and stimulated agriculture o Early (PrePottery) Neolithic (100006500 BCE) Domesticate plants/animals around 10000 BCE Crops: barley, lentils, peas, rye, wheat Increased population growth Villages and even towns appear Ritual structures and objects are widespread Manipulated human remains o Plastered skulls – a mask on top with shells in eye sockets o Unsure as to why – possible ancestor worship? Plaster statues (‘Ain Ghazal) Stone masks – carved (Nahal Hemar Cave; Horvat Duma) Abu Hureyra Site A tell – mound of debris that looks like a hill o Trash buildup from years of humans repeatedly using the rubble/ashes of old mudbrickclay houses as the foundation of new houses Evidence of hunting and wild grain use Large population of 200300 people 2 to 3 story tall structures built close together 30 acres Once on fertile land but it dried up – they still ate the same foods by domesticating Cultivated wild resources Start to use fewer foods because they are relying on certain domesticates o This shows in their health – posture to use grounding stones leads to damage/arthritis in ankles/toes Jericho Another tell Occupied for a long time (9000 years) and began in 10500 BCE A regional trade center – traded stones for tools and jewelry o There was a widespread area of trade items 6 acres and 70 feet high Large stone tower (and mudbrick) on one side of settlement o Structure on top o Ditch in front o More symbolic than defensive – used as a landmark or for ritual purposes (it had restricted access) o Ditch in front of it = prevented flooding and mudslides o Late Neolithic Widespread collapse and dispersal of communities (big centers) End of earlier ritual systems Appearance of pottery (7500 BCE) Used for storage, to hold water, to keep out pests/moisture Handformed Utilitarian storage (used for strictly practical purposes) Large communities appeared in central and Western Turkey Catalhöyük 70006000 BCE 2 times the size of Jericho – 32 acres and 10,000 people Relied on wild resources Domesticated barley, lentils, peas, wheat; goats and sheep; some cattle but probably not a domesticate A trade center (lots of obsidian traded) Excavated by James Mellaart and Ian Hodder Art and ritual: o Cat god/dess o Lots of bulls (horns and heads of bulls) o Ritual use in households – they had shrines in them o 20% of the structures had shrines o Tall, skinny houses with roof access o Multipurpose spaces o Furniture built into walls (shelves, beds, tables) Not as much social inequality as expected – basically none No public buildings SW Asia Summary o *Important to know the order things happened or were domesticated* o Settled villages appear before domestication o Plants domesticated first, and then herd animals o Pottery follows o Shift to agriculture o Consequences = population growth, larger communities, more ritual
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