IREL 100, Week 7 Notes: South America
IREL 100, Week 7 Notes: South America IREL 100
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Layne Franklin on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to IREL 100 at University of Indianapolis taught by Brian Platt in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see World Regional Geography in History at University of Indianapolis.
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Date Created: 03/01/16
South America • Amerindians ‒ Migrated into the realm from North and Middle America ‒ Founded societies in coastal valleys, river basins, plateaus, and mountains ‒ Adaptation to natural environments created distinct regional cultures The Inca State • Altiplano society centered at Cuzco • Expert builders, farmers, herders, manufacturers, and scholars • Extensive empire • Unified by network of roads and bridges • Rigid class structure and highly centralized society • Easily taken over by small army of Spanish invaders in 1530s The Iberian Invaders • Spanish conquest of the Incas in 1533 ‒ Land alienation—Amerindians placed in serfdom on haciendas ‒ Spanish viceroyalties expanded across the western realm • Portuguese penetrated east-central South America • 1494—Treaty of Tordesillas split the New World ‒ Portuguese territory expanded to include the Amazon Basin Independence and Isolation • Isolation of countries ‒ Distance and physiographic barriers ‒ Iberian conquerors had little interest in developing the New World, only to extract riches • Independence ‒ Europeans who made the New World their home rebelled in early 1800s ‒ Viceroyalties split into nine independent states • New countries grew apart The Population Map—Then and Now • “Pre-Colombian” population ‒ Amerindian societies inhabited Andes highlands, Amazon Basin, and harsh environments of Tierra del Fuego • Contemporary population ‒ 90% of Amerindians eradicated by European warfare and disease ‒ European settlers stayed near the coasts • Andes settlements legacy of Incas African Descendants • Portuguese ‒ Sugar plantation economy ‒ Workforce of African slaves • Brazil has South America’s largest black population ‒ Concentrated in Brazil’s northeast Ethnic Landscapes • Ethnic layers ‒ Amerindians ‒ Europeans ‒ Africans ‒ Asians • Ethnic mixing—some peoples have single ethnic origin while others have mixed ancestry • Plural societies—peoples from various cultural backgrounds cluster but usually do not mix Amerindian Reawakening • Amerindian majorities gaining social, political, and economic strength ‒ Changing religious practices ‒ Secularization of South Americans ‒ Loss of popular support for Catholic Church • Liberation theology—1950s ‒ Blend of Christian religion and socialist thinking ‒ Interpreted Christian teachings as a quest to liberate impoverished masses from oppression Rural-Urban Migration • Urban population of 82% • Rural-to-urban migration—from countryside to cities • Push and Pull factors ‒ Push Factors • Slow rural land reforms • Little prospect of economic advancement ‒ Pull Factors • Urban opportunities—regular wages, education for children • Better medical care • Upward social mobility and lure of life in a big city Regional Patterns • Levels of urbanization ‒ Most urbanized—Southern Cone ‒ Least urbanized—Andes • Megacities—(populations exceed 10 million) ‒ São Paulo ‒ Rio de Janeiro ‒ Buenos Aires The “Latin” American City Model • CBD—anchor ‒ Business, employment, and entertainment focus ‒ Central square or plaza—ceremonial center and link to the past • Commercial spine and elite residential sector—extension of the CBD ‒ Offices, retail facilities, and housing for the upper and upper-middle classes The “Latin” American City Model • Concentric zones—decrease in income and housing quality with distance from the CBD • Zone of maturity ‒ Inner city containing housing for the middle class • Zone of in situ accretion ‒ Modest housing interspersed with unkempt areas • Zone of peripheral squatter settlements ‒ Home to comparatively poor and unskilled workers ‒ Informal sector—undocumented workers and money transactions beyond government regulation ‒ Barrios and favelas-shantytowns • Zone of disamenity—undesirable land The Shadow of the United States • Long history of U.S. involvement in the realm ‒ Anti-Americanism based on past U.S. behavior ‒ United States is the biggest trading partner of the realm—almost one- fifth of new exports and imports • Dependencia theory—persistent poverty of some countries explained in terms of unequal relations with more affluent countries • Political turmoil and dictatorial regimes • Economic stagnation • 21 century—increasing democracy, more interconnected, and globalization Problems of Inequality and Violence • Enormous inequality and disparity ‒ Wealth is concentrated in a small minority (richest 20% controls 70% of wealth, poorest 29% owns 2%) • Need for greater economic opportunities for the poor, more inclusive development, and better government • Resurgence of Amerindian identity Industrial Development • Rapid growth of manufacturing • Uneven development—concentration of manufacturing in and around major urban centers • Brazil as one of the world’s four biggest emerging markets ‒ BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) ‒ Massive growth and rapid economic diversification • Transforming the favela ‒ Bolsa Familia – cash given to families for keeping kids in school and getting vaccinations Economic Integration Economic supranationalism • Mercosur—(1995) ‒ Dominant free-trade organization • Andean Community—(1969/1995) ‒ Customs union of Andean states • Union of South American Nations (UNASUR)—(2008) ‒ Similar to the EU ‒ Significant disagreements • Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) China Calling • By 2010—surpassed the U.S. as the leading trading partner of Brazil and Chile • Demand for raw materials and markets for Chinese exports • Chinese Presence ‒ Establishing new embassies and consulates ‒ Buying up companies ‒ Partnering joint ventures ‒ Financing infrastructure projects and development assistance ‒ Sending and inviting high-level trade delegations
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