Health Psychology PSC 126
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Karianne Muller III on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 126 at University of California - Davis taught by John Capitanio in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 73 views. For similar materials see /class/191805/psc-126-university-of-california-davis in Psychlogy at University of California - Davis.
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Date Created: 09/08/15
PSC126 Health Psychology Winter 2008 Handout on genetics thalassemia a genetic blood disease characterized by absent or decreased production of normal hemoglobin resulting in anemia hemoglobin a protein produced in bone marrow and residing in red blood cells composed of four polypeptides and four heme groups Each heme group contains a molecule of iron Hemoglobin transports oxygen to tissues genes the fundamental physical and mctional units of heredity A gene is an ordered sequence of nucleotides located in a particular position on a particular chromosome that encodes a speci c mctional product nucleotides A subunit of DNA consisting of a nitrogenous base adenine guanine thymine or cytosine in DNA adenine guanine uracil or cytosine in RNA a phosphate molecule and a sugar molecule deoxyribose in DNA and ribose in RNA Thousands of nucleotides are linked to form a DNA or RNA molecule DNA a linear molecule called deoxyribonucleic acid composed of multiple genes chromosome the self replicating genetic structures of cells containing the cellular DNA that bears in its nucleotide sequence the linear array of genes template strand the strand of the DNA double helix that is copied by base pair complementarity to make an RNA The other nontemplate strand of the DNA duplex has a sequence that is identical to the synthesized RNA except in RNA U replaces T triplet set of three adjacent bases in a DNA molecule that codes for an amino acid amino acids any of a class of 20 molecules that are combined to form proteins in living things proteins large molecules composed of one or more chains of amino acids in a speci c order the order is determined by the base sequence of nucleotides in the gene coding for the protein Proteins are required for the structure mction and regulation of the bodys cells tissues and organs and each protein has unique functions Examples are hormones enzymes and antibodies meiosis process of cell division involved in producing reproductive cells polypeptide a long chain of amino acids proteins are built from one or more polypeptides enzymes a protein that acts as a catalyst speeding the rate at which a biochemical reaction proceeds but not altering the direction or nature of the reaction catalyst a substance able to increase the rate of a chemical reaction Without itself being consumed or changed transcription the process in which the code in DNA is copied to RNA RNA a molecule called ribonucleic acid composed of a phosphate molecule and the sugar ribose and 4 bases RNA polymerase an enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of RNA from a DNA template codons a set of 3 nucleotide sequences in mRNA mRNA messenger RNA carries info for protein construction from DNA to ribosomes ribosomes structures Where protein synthesis takes place translation information from mRNA is translated into sequence of amino acids tRNA transfer RNA involved in translation contains a 3base anticodon which is the complement of the codon and an amino acid promoter region stretch of DNA in front of a gene Where RNA polymerase attaches to begin transcription activator protein a protein that can bind to the promoter which attracts the RNA polymerase and begins transcription repressor protein a protein that can bind to the promoter or interact with transcription factors which can prevent attachment of the RNA polymerase and so inhibit transcription transcription factors speci c proteins which allow DNA recognition by RNA polymerase mutation a change in the base sequence of an organism s DNA missense mutation substitution of an incorrect amino acid for a correct one nonsense mutation substitution of a stop codon for an amino acid stopping translation making a shorter protein frameshift mutation mutation Where reading ame is changed so true triplet codes are off by one base pair mutagens physical and chemical agents that cause mutations carcinogens mutagens that result in cancer chelator a compound that can remove iron from the body D P D P D P D P D P D P D P D P D G G C A G A C T T C C G T C T G A A D P D P D P D P D P D P D P D P D unwrapped DNA C C G U C U G A A R P R P R P R P R P R P R P R P R messenger RNA Lecture 8 February 4 2008 III Psycholoqical factors B Stress and neuroendocrinology 2 What things are stressful a characteristics of events b classes of events c chronic stress 3 Physiology of stress a Overview of the nervous system b Autonomic NS c HPA system d Hormones and neural inputs to tissues e Stress hormones and immune system communication f Conclusion READING Ch 6 Ch 2 pp 1622 Ch 14 pp 378 388 PSC 126 Health Psychology Winter 2008 Handout on HIVAIDS Worldwide statistics on HIVAIDS WORLD WIDE HI VAIDS IS A DISEASE OF ADULTS WITH A SLIGHT BIAS TOWARD MEN OCCURS MOSTLYINDEVELOPING COUNTRIES IS CONTRACTED PRIMARILY THROUGH HE T EROSEXUAL IN T ERCOURSE AND HAS RES ULT ED IN MILLIONS OF ORPHANED CHILDREN As of the end of 2005 an estimated 403 million people worldwide 380 million adults and 23 million children younger than 15 years were living with HIVAIDS Woman account for nearly half of all people worldwide living with HIVAIDS Worldwide approximately 1 of adults aged 15 to 49 is HIV infected There are 16 countries in Africa where 10 of adults 15 49 years of age is infected with HIV There are a few countries in Africa where 20 one adult in five is living with HIV In two countries Botswana and Swaziland the HIV prevalence rate is more than 35 An estimated 49 million new HIV infections occurred worldwide during 2005 that is about 14000 infections each day More than 95 percent of these new infections occurred in developing countries Worldwide more than 80 percent of all adult HIV infections have resulted from heterosexual intercourse As of 2005 more than 23 million people with HIVAIDS have died since the first AIDS cases were identified in 1981 In 2005 alone HIVAIDS associated illnesses caused the deaths of approximately 31 million people worldwide including an estimated 570000 children younger than 15 years Since the beginning of the HIVAIDS epidemic approximately 150 million children younger than 15 years have been orphaned worldwide because of the premature deaths of HIV infected parents Statistics for USA IN THE USA HI VAIDS IS A DISEASE OF ADULTS WITH A STRONG BUT SHRINKING BIAS TOWARD MEN OCCURS AT DISPROPORTIONATE RATES AMONG MINORITIES IS CONTRACTED PRIMARILY THROUGH MALE T O MALE SEXUAL CONTACT 60 OF MEN AND INJECTIONDRUG USE 25 OF MEN BUTAMONG WOMEN THROUGHHETEROSEXUAL CONTACT 75 OF CASES OR THROUGHINJECTIONDRUG USE 25 OF CASES The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC estimate that 850000 to 950000 US residents are living with HIV infection one quarter of whom are unaware of their infection As of the end of 2004 an estimated 415193 people in the United States were living with AIDS In the United States a total of 918286 cases of AIDS had been reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC as of Dec 2004 Approximately 40000 new HIV infections occur each year in the United States about 70 percent among men and 30 percent among women Of these newly infected people half are younger than 25 years of age From 1985 to 2000 the proportion of adultadolescent AIDS cases reported in women increased from 7 percent to 25 percent In 2004 this number remains at about 25 Of new infections among men in the United States CDC estimates that approximately 60 percent of men were infected through homosexual sex 25 percent through injection drug use and 15 percent through heterosexual sex Of newly infected men approximately 50 percent are black 30 percent are white 20 percent are Hispanic and a small percentage are members of other racialethnic groups Of new infections among women in the United States CDC estimates that approximately 75 percent of women were infected through heterosexual sex and 25 percent through injection drug use Of newly infected women approximately 64 percent are black 18 percent are white 18 percent are Hispanic and a small percentage are members of other racialethnic groups In comparison Blacks make up 127 of the US population and Hispanics are about 88 In 2002 HIVAIDS was among the top 3 causes of death for African American men aged 2554 years It was the number 1 cause of death for African American women aged 25734 years Approximately 50000 deaths among people with AIDS occurred in the United States in 1995 In 2004 the number of AIDS deaths in the United States was 15798 REFERENCES httpwwwcdc n2 nv r53 17pdf Terms The following are important terms for lectures on HIV and AIDS retrovirus an RNA virus that uses the enzyme reverse transcriptase to convert the RNA to DNA lentivirus subcategory of retroviruses lenti slow these are slow viruses meaning there is a long time between infection and display of signs of disease env the envelope protein of HIV containing two parts gp 120 which extends out of the virus and gp41 which anchors the protein in the viral membrane chemokines chemoattractant cytokines secreted by immune system cells These cytokines are chemoattractant that is their secretion attracts other immune system cells chemokine receptors receptors for chemokines found on immune cells Some are fusion cofactors for HIV that is they are necessary molecules for HIV to infect a cell reverse transcription using the HIV enzyme reverse transcriptase viral RNA is converted to DNA integrase an HIV enzyme that helps to splice the HIV DNA into the host cell s DNA Once spliced in the HIV DNA is called a provirus protease an HIV enzyme that cleaves the long chains of newly synthesized viral proteins and enzymes into smaller pieces which makes them functional and results in a new infectious virus particle nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors NRTIs drugs that use chemically modified nucleosides that will be incorporated into HIV s DNA in place of natural nucleosides non nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors NNRTIs attach to reverse transcriptase preventing it from translating viral RNA into DNA protease inhibitors prevent protease from breaking up HIV protein chains fusion inhibitors prevents viral entry by blocking e g gp 41 integrase inhibitors inhibits integrase enzyme CCR5 blocker prevents viral entry by blocking CCR5 a co receptor needed by HIV for entry into cell
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