WW1 (1914-1917) History 4394
Popular in American Military History after 1865
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sophie Walker on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 4394 at Baylor University taught by Dr. David Smith in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see American Military History after 1865 in History at Baylor University.
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Date Created: 03/01/16
Pre WW1 (1914-1917) Friday, February 26, 2016 8:03 AM -lot of political background -lot of stuff that happens that shapes way US sees it (by Spr 1917) -WW2 is very different -Ottomans: -cover the left flank of the Germs (why they're important) -block access -Clemenceau: -important for more of the latter part of the war -trench war beginnings: -German's Plan/new technology -Alfred von Schieffen -Germany: -has a hostile pwr on both side of it -allies with Austria -Alfred von Schlieffen (organizes this way before WW1 starts): -how to carry out a war against two fronts (Russia/France) -enemies have a larger mil force -defeat them one at a time; knock one out before knock other out -defeat Fr first bc Fr will mobilize first -calculate who can mobilize quicker (Fr or Russ) and who can go to war with first -Russ has bigger army so will take longer -Fr: -ready for war with Ger since 1871 (end of Franco-Pruss war) -allies with Russia --> helps S plan -Bismarck knows this -want their land back (Alsace/Lorraine); fought btwn Fr/Ger for everrrrrr (ima, they're cool; Fr owns it now) -first chance get: march into land area -Schlief knows; thinks has 6 weeks to defeat Fr before Russia is ready to fight -S Plan: take entire Germ army through Belgium (in arch-shape so goes above Fr army); capture Paris; trap Fr army from France -one fort's job is to retreat to keep pulling/lure Fr into Germany; then bulk of G army will be behind them -thinks strong enough to hold the Fr force but that's not their main job; -wheel, surround, cut off -knows that won't end in 6 weeks if this doesn't work (prediction comes true) -just wants a cease-fire; put Fr in a position that will just stop the waar -take Paris/the government or else Germ will destroy the Fr army) -thinks taking capital will be enough -use interior lines to push Russ back -if had work, would've worked really well but there were too many variabilities/assumptions -Shit starts going down/fucking up: -Russia mobilizes "too soon" (about a week earlier than S thought would); they are the ones who "started the clock" -Belgium is neutral (Cong is Vienna: Brit -Cong of Vienna: -last peace Conng that put everything back together after Napoleon -British: at Vienna in 1850 -one stipulation: Belgium remain neutral/all great pwrs must respect this -bc Brit is so close to Belgium (Bel is okay with that) -an opposing nation can pass its nations through Bel IF that country has been attacked -Shit starts going down/fucking up: -Germ can pass through Bel if attacked by Fr --> part of S's plan -Fr was supposed to cross the frontier --> they don't -Ger was supposed to go through Bel but Bel said nooooo, haven't been attacked yet -Ger goes through anyway; fights through Bel (pretty nasty war) -get into France: find the Brit army has been deployed/in Fr -slows the Ger down; Fr can start pulling back in Fr; -Paris is off the board; shorted the arch/go down E of Paris -Ger decides to do a double envelopment -first B of the Marme (Sept 6-10, 1914) -east of Paris -two long fronts from Alsace/Lorraine up to Bel --> trenches start -W military concept built around the assumption that offensive is the way to win a war -taking the initiative -both sides are going to be the Offensive -issues: technology -defense is more powerful -farther range; more accurate; machine guns -artillery: 5+ miles away from front line/can accurate rain stuff down but enemy can't see where the fire is coming from -trenches: -zig zag shape -barbed wire in front of trenches -catch the enemy/can gun them down when caught on barbed wire -trenches connected to other trenches -artillery could rain fire down on a big targeted area -gas wasn't as decisive of a weapon as ppl think it is -wasn't planned --> machine guns gunning you down so better start digging fast -Gers do a better job with trenches -dig deeper/can survive more artillery -both sides still think offensive is the best way to go -kind of like a super big scale of Lee/Gettysburg -how do you restore mobility? How do you get around this? -ottoman empire: -secures left flank -attack of Gallipoli against Brit -Russia: -big battle (Dec 1914) -Gers defeat Russ; front has a stalemate -most of the effort btwn Austria (long-time rivals) -keeps more Ger troops on the West -want to get Russ out of the war -about 2 years of just pounding each other(14-16) -start using subs -2nd largest surface fleet in the world -goes against Brit fleet once/it's a draw --> start using the subs -unrestricted warfar in 1917 --> Wilson is like fuck you guys, you suck -Brit navy v Ger n: surface fleet v sub sleet -almost wipe Brit out -US naval officers: William Simms; goes to report on Brit -writes back that Brit about to lose; losing too much and can't build fast enough -Brit decide on convoy system: bring all the logistics together and ship them together; surrounded by screen of sub hunters (versus spreading them all out) -doesn't want to do convoy duty --> it's boring (same as being a W frontier guy) -like a sheep herding system -Look in Fr-Pruss war
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