Organizational Communic CMN 136
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Holden Sauer on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CMN 136 at University of California - Davis taught by Virginia Hamilton in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 194 views. For similar materials see /class/191808/cmn-136-university-of-california-davis in Communication at University of California - Davis.
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Date Created: 09/08/15
Revised Study Guide for Exam 1 1 What is the definition of an organization Answer An organization involves a social collectivity or a group of people in which activities are coordinated in orderto achieve both individual and collective goals By Coordinating activities some degree of organizational structure is created to assist individuals in dealing with each other and with others in the larger organizational environment 2 What are the various metaphors for organizations and what do each of them mean and which organizational theoryapproaches do they relate to Answer Metaphors Organizational theoryapproaches Meanings Machine Classical TheoryBureaucracy Organizations have parts 9led to the organization of larger that work together to groups of people in factory and produce products or assemblyline settings services People are considered one of those parts Organism Systems Theory Like planets and animals 9view organizations as complex the organization is organic organisms that must interact with their 9 it s born grows environment to survive functions adapts to its environment and then eventually dies Brain Participative and Learning Organizations process Organizations information have 9 decision making is performed by intelligence are capable of every organizational member and learning can change and goals are set by complete work can conceptualize a past groups present and future 9need to transform into learning in order to survive and to resist Culture Cultural Approaches 9 each organization as its own way of doing what it does and its own way of talking about what is it doing Organizations create and share meaning have values and norms and are perpetuated by shared stories and rituals Political System Critical Approaches 9 adopt a radical frame of reference by considering organizations as sites of Organizations distribute power influence is exerted forced and decisions are made Networks Communication Human Relation 9 mere attention to individuals causes changes in behavior has come to be known as the belonging is matter Organizations are a complex of interacting social structures that are channels of influence and power A halfhuman halfmachine machine and organism with a giant head brain with a sombrero or yankees hat culture wearing a tuxedo on a podium political system and it s a picture on facebook networks 3 What are the three types of networks and what does each of them mean What does centrality mean regarding networks Answer Centrality 9 central having a high off contacts within a network are the leaders and key player of the and enforces the rule structure of the 4 What is control and what the four key ways control is exerted in organizations Answer Control 9 a kind of discipline orforce that maintains order consistency and large group compliance and control what employees can and 5 What are the key ideas related to the Classical approach Who is considered to be the founder of this approach key ideas related to the Classical approach increased mechanization and industrialization led to the organization of larger groups of people in factory and assemblyline settings Established by Max Weberone of the most prominent social theorists of all time and Henri Fayol and Frederick Taylor Order Span of control Everyone had their own specific job that they do Jobs do not overlap Ex Norma Ray got stuck put back in weaving Unrewarding Bureaucracy classical theorists through that repetitive strict job description was best approach Machine metaphorclassical approach What s the goal What do we need to accomplish Maximum efficiency Original organizational behavior method of consulting Industrial psychologists 6 What are the four principles of the classical approach interests to general interest initiative esprit de corps all for 1 1 for all no 7 What are the principles that govern bureaucracies 8 What are time and motion studies Answer Frederick Winslow Taylor a a complex task is broken into small simple steps b the sequence of movements taken by the employee in performing those steps is carefully observed to detect and eliminate redundant needless or wasteful motion c precise exact time taken for each correct movement is measured Time and motion studies are studies done by industrial psychologists Set up work areas seating etc to measure how much timemovement is used to do work Ex Norma Ray shut down machines reduce cost for company 9 What sparked the Human Relations movement What is the Hawthorne effect Human Relations Movement if you cared for and nurtured workers the organization s operations will improve and productivity will increase Hawthorne effectquot9 worker output increased as a direct result of the attention paid to workers by the researchers mere attention to individuals causes changes in behavior has come to be known as the belonging is matter Ex Lights on in the workroom equals productivity 10 What Is MasloWs Hierarchy of Needs How does it relate to organizational life Answer Maslow proposes that human are motivated by 5 basic needs 9 3 lowerorder physiologicalsafetyaffiliation belonging acceptance solving lack of achievement respect Relates to organizational life at each step from bottom to top Step one living wages Step two having a safe work environment Step three having a sense of belonging in the work place social relationships with coworkers Step four rewarding work bonus pay Step five work allowing the exercise of creativity 11 What do McGregor s Theory X and Theory Y postulate What are Theory X and Theory Y managers concerned with and believe about people Theory X and Theory Y represent the divergent assumptions that managers can hold about organizational functioning Theory X is representative of a manager influenced by the most negative aspects of classical management theories Theory Y manager is one who adheres to the precepts of the human relations movement X 1 The average man is by nature indolent he works as little as possible 2 He lacks ambition dislikes responsibility and prefers to be led 3 He is inherently selfcentered and indifferent to organizational needs 4 He is by nature resistant to change 5 He is gullible not very bright and the ready dupe of the charlatan and the demagogue Macgregor said that managers should conceptualize coworkers as motivated by the higher order needs in Maslow s hierarchy and as capable of independent achievement in the workplace 12 What distinguished the Human Relations approach from the Human Resources approach Human Relations I Human Resources I Maximized the possibility that employees Maximized the contribution employees can will be satisfied make Participation increased productivity free Valuable information from employees workers from mundane tasks human workers enhance effectiveness Human Resources more brains can accomplish more Everyone s engaged with all levels of the workplace Getting everyone involved in decision making processes Participative Control is exercised at all levels of organization and communication is upward includes up down and horizontal interactions All contributions are valued and employees are rewarded through satisfaction of a wide variety of needs Workers are opinions of company and everyone has opinions involvement at all levels Human relations Includes a good guy and bad guy manager Companies need their employees to be able to successfully communicate and convey information to be able to interpret others emotions to be open to feelings and be able to solve conflicts that lead to more compatible relationships The movement viewed workers in terms of their psychology and fit with companies rather than as interchangeable parts 13 What is New Systems Science How does it differ from original systems theory Answer NSS humans are different from amoebas we are smarter have critical thinking skill Systems theory is a theory on survival that explains organizations The organism metaphor views organizations not as selfcontained and selfsufficient machines but as complex organisms that must interact with their environment to survive Component parts are interdepending against each other to create another part Organism metaphor organizations is an organism that matures and dies Human systems need a certain degree of change and growth to feel satisfied Too much stability leads to boredom and stagnation 14 What is the cultural approach What is the definition of organizational culturequot Cultural Approach relies on a cultural metaphor for understanding organizations Organizational culture each organization has its own way of doing what it does and its own way of talking about what is it doing 15 What are the four key components of a strong culture What do each of them mean Key components of strong culture Meaning a values The belies and visions that members hold for an organization innovation vs stability b heroes The individuals who come to exemplify show an organization s value ig Walt Disne Steve Jobs c rites and rituals The ceremonies through which an 39 quot 39 39 its values d the cultural network The communication systems through which cultural values are instituted and reinforced newsletters the informal interactions 16 What does the critical approach attempt to achieve 9 attempt to balance power and protectprovide helps to the lower level employees 17 What is a learning organization What are the necessary skills needed to excel in a learning organization What does obsolescence mean Learning organization 9 a lifelong learning process which you must be capable of Obsolescence 9 once useful but no longer useful something needed to be better later on you have to learn something new 18 What is assimilation What are the two major processes involved in assimilation Assimilation refers to those ongoing behavioral and cognitive processes by which individuals join become 39 a 39 into and exit a Socialization The organization influences the individual through formal and informal processes b lndividuation A single employee influences some aspects of the organization newtradition of going out to happy hours on Friday 19 What are the three l s of conflict 3 l s 9 interaction interdependence and incompatible goals 20 What are some of the common things that need to be adjusted when an 21 What are the causes of emotion in the workplace Answer Causes of emotion in the workplace L allegiance workers often feel many loyalties that may end up conflicting d emotional rights and obligations at work when social and gt 4 of what is fair and correct arise strong emotions can arise 22 What is emotional intelligence Emotional lntelligence the ability to manage ourselves and our emotions effectively keep disruptive emotions and impulses under control skill at adjusting to changing circumstances and overcoming obstacles pro guo photographs cartoons etc create an environment that is perceived as hostile and results in interfering with the 24 What are the four criteria that distinguish the informationcarrying capacity of 25 What is the symbolcarrying capacity of media Symbolcarrying capacity of media refers to the way a medium conveys the core values and assumptions that constitute an organization s culture personal touchquot or symbolic value of using a sophisticated tool social meaningquot 27 What are the definitions of an organization s vision value missionpurpose and
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