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notes for 2/23/2016

by: mwastler

notes for 2/23/2016 NUTR 250


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fiber, added sugar, carbohydrates
Human Nutrition and Metabolism
Joel Timothy Cramer
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by mwastler on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NUTR 250 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Joel Timothy Cramer in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Human Nutrition and Metabolism in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Nebraska Lincoln.

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Date Created: 03/01/16
2/23/2016 Carbohydrates Cont…why does fiber intake decrease with age? Answer atrophic gastritis: shrinkage of alimentary canal. Decreases absorptive area of small intestine, so we technically need to increase transit time to improve absorption while fiber decreases transit time = losing nutrients Recommended Intake (limitation) of added sugar: 1. Intake is about 50% of kcals per day as carbohydrates (CHO)…U.S. intake is about 16% of kcals per day as added sugar 2. Dietary guidelines recommend 6% kcals per day or less as added sugar 3. World Health Organization (WHO) recommends less than or equal to 10% kcals per day as added sugar 4. American Heart Association <100 kcals per day for women and <150 kcals per day for men for added sugar 5. Fiber recommendations already stated…How much fiber do we actually consume? a. In U.S. we consume about 25-50% less than recommended fiber Functions of digestible CHO: 1. Provide energy a. 4kcals/g is the Atwater Factor 2. Protein Sparring (don’t confuse with CHO sparring) = adequate CHO required to allow amino acids to be used for building proteins rather than be used for energy a. Allows the body to avoid gluconeogenesis = the synthesis of glucose from a non-CHO source. Protein sparring PREVENTS KETOSIS. 3. Two main systems that depend on CHO: a. Central nervous system (CNS)  “debatable” b. Red blood cells  exclusive use of glucose 4. Ketosis  what if CHO aren’t available? a. The incomplete breakdown of fatty acids, where the result is a build-up of ketone bodies b. 3 ketone bodies: i. Acetone ii. Acetoacetic acid iii. Beta-hydroxybutyric acid c. Ketones go to the krebs cycle (TCA cycle) as the intermediate, acetyl- CoA i. The CNS can adapt to using ketones for fuel when CHO are low. This process is known as “keto-adaptation” or “starvation”  process takes about 4-6 weeks to “keto-adapt” ii. Ketoacidosis: excessive ketone body build-up. Can eventually lead to “diabetic coma” Functions of Indigestible CHO: 1. Promote bowel health: Constipation, hemorrhoids a. Diverticulitis  inflamed diverticula b. Diverticulosis  formation of diverticula i. Diverticula= “walled off” pockets of undigested food 2. Reduce the risk of obesity: a. Fiber contributes to “fullness” of satiety i. Satiety= feeling satisfied or full after eating 3. Enhances blood glucose control: a. Soluble fibers thicken chyme, which slows gastric emptying, which slows CHO absorption 4. Reduces cholesterol absorption: a. Soluble fibers inhibit the absorption of cholesterol – and – they increase the elimination of bile, which forces the liver to create more bile from blood cholesterol j CHO Digestion: 1. Starts in the mouth with the salivary amylase 2. Small intestine releases specific enzymes that break down disaccharides: a. Maltase b. Sucrase c. Lactase i. Fiber is not broken down 3. “details” = mouthstomach small intestine (pancreas secretes enzymes into small intestine pancreatic amylase) / no further digestion of CHO here  most CHO digested here AND absorbed here  Liver  after absorption of simple sugars, they are transported to the liver a. liver is one of the storage sites for CHO (sugars) b. Muscle is the other main storage site for CHO i. Stored as glycogen CHO Absorption: 1. Mostly in the small intestine via active transport a. Glucose and galactose are absorbed via active transport that requires ATP for energy and the sodium concentration gradient b. Fructose is absorbed via facilitated transport so ATP is not required (doesn’t require energy) i. Multiple transportable CHO = combination of glucose and fructose (ex: gatorade and powerade)


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