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notes for 2/25/2016

by: mwastler

notes for 2/25/2016 NUTR 250


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carbohydrates continued
Human Nutrition and Metabolism
Joel Timothy Cramer
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by mwastler on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NUTR 250 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Joel Timothy Cramer in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Human Nutrition and Metabolism in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Nebraska Lincoln.

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Date Created: 03/01/16
2/25/2016 Cont for Tuesday’s notes…. a. Liver converts fructose and galactose to glucose 1. Blood glucose a. Used for energy by cells b. Stored in muscle or liver as glycogen c. Excessive glucose converted to fats in the liver and stored as adipose tissue  fat stores Health Concerns Related to CHO 1. Very high fiber diets above 50-60g per day a. High fiber + low fluid intake can result in constipation, hemorrhoids, and blockage b. Decrease certain mineral absorption c. Atrophic gastritis in older adults 2. High sugar diets a. Increase risk of overweight and/or obesity (overweight >25, <29.9 and obesity >30) b. Increase risk of dental caries c. Increase risk of cardiovascular disease i. Sugar can increase inflammation levels of interior vessels, which then collect cholesterol plaque 3. Lactose intolerance a. Primary i. Decrease in lactase production ii. About 90% of cases b. Secondary i. Associated with damage to Beta cells of the pancreas which produce insulin ii. About 10% of cases 4. Glucose intolerance a. Hypoglycemia: low blood sugar, 50-70mg/dL b. Hyperglycemia: high blood sugar, >125mg/dL Regulation of Blood Glucose 1. Normal [] of blood glucose is 70-110mg/dL, which is tightly regulated by the liver 2. Insulin is secreted from the pancreas (hormone) a. Facilitates the transfer of glucose from the blood into cells b. Serves to reduce blood glucose c. Receptors for blood glucose on skeletal muscle are GLUT1 and GLUT4 i. GLUT1 responds to insulin at rest ii. GLUT4 responds to exercise and is insulin independent 3. Glucagon, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and growth hormone a. All of these hormones work to raise blood glucose Other Blood Sugar Disorders 1. Metabolic Syndrome a. A group of factors that increase the risks for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease i. Group of factors include: obesity, inflammation, blood triglycerides, blood glucose, and physical activity 2. Hypoglycemia a. Reactive= exaggerated insulin response after eating, not common b. Fasting= low blood sugar after fasting, more common 3. Diabetes a. Type I diabetes, 10% of cases i. Insulin producing cells of the pancreas (beta cells) are destroyed ii. Autoimmune disease iii. Diet must be coordinated with insulin administration for life iv. Increase risk of cardiovascular disease, blindness, and kidney disease b. Type II diabetes, 90% of cases i. Characterized by insulin resistance 1. Insulin may be low, normal, or high ii. Most common by far rd iii. Treatment is diet, exercise, and 3 resort=medication Ways to Characterize Foods and Their Sugar Content 1. Glycemic Index a. Ratio of blood glucose response to a standard amount of any given food compared to the same standard amount of straight glucose intake b. Between 1-100 c. Influenced by many factors d. Based on a 50g carbohydrate serving fixed amount 2. Glycemic load a. Amount of CHO in a consumed food multiplied by glycemic index and divided by 100 (won’t ask to calculate on exam) b. Better reflects a foods effect on blood glucose than just glycemic index alone CHAPTER 6: LIPIDS 1. Triglycerides= The main dietary fat a. Structure 3 fatty acids bonded to a common glycerol backbone (look up picture of structure) b. Fatty acids (FA) = free fatty acids (FFA) i. May be the same FFA’s or different FFA’s in any given triglyceride 2. General a. Lipid family includes i. Triglycerides ii. Phospholipids iii. Sterols b. All lipids contain C, H, O c. Do not dissolve in water, do dissolve in organic solvents such as chloroform, benzene, or ether d. Triglycerides are most common about 95% of lipids found in food and the body 3. Terms associated with Lipids a. Esterification: FFA binding to the hydroxyl groups on a glycerol backbone i. Releases one molecule of H2O therefore ****review condensation reactions vs. hydrolysis reactions b. De-esterification: FFA released from glycerol i. Diglyceride: glycerol with two fatty acids attached ii. Monoglyceride: 1 FA attached c. Re-esterification: re-attaching a FFA to a mono- or diglyceride i. This term is specific to post-absoprtion


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