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Week 6 notes

by: Cheyenne Schoenfeld
Cheyenne Schoenfeld

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Chapter 6 Notes
Violence in society
Henriikka Weir
Class Notes
Violence in Society
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cheyenne Schoenfeld on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 3250 at University of Colorado Colorado Springs taught by Henriikka Weir in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Violence in society in Criminology and Criminal Justice at University of Colorado Colorado Springs.

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Date Created: 03/01/16
Chapter 6: Rapes and Sexual Assaults  Definitions   NCVS provides the most detailed data on rape and sexual assault  o Rape is defined as forced sexual intercourse including psychological coercion and physical force   Forced sexual intercourse refers to and vaginal, anal, or oral penetration  by ad offender o Sexual assault refers to a wide range of victimizations, separate from rape or  attempted rape   Sexual Assault includes attacks that involve unwanted sexual contact  between victim and offender   Grabbing, touching, fondling   2013 FBI revised UCR definition on rape to clarify three critical points: o 1) victim can be either gender  o 2) victim can be incapable of giving consent due to drugs/ alcohol or age o 3) reflects various forms of sexual penetrations often understood to be raped  The NIBRS, unlike UCR, seperates sex offenses into 2 categories  o Forcible (ex. Rape, sodomy, sexual assault w/ an object, and fondling) o Nonforcible but unlawful ( incest and statutory rape)  Rape  o “The carnal knowledge of a person, without the consent of the victim, including  instances where the victim in incapable of giving consent because of his/ her  temporary or permanent mental or physical incapacity” o Any penetration even if she is unconcise    Sondomy  o “Oral or anal sexual intercourse with another person, without the consent of the  victim”  Sexual assaults with an object  o “ to use an object or an instrument of unlawfully penetrate, however slightly, the  genital or anal opening of the body of another person, without the consent or the  victim”  Fondling  o “The touching of the private body parts of another person for the purpose of  sexual gratification, without the consent of the victim”  Folding is the only “forcible” offense in NIBRS not counted as “rape” in  the UCR (because no penetration occurred)    Incest  o “nonforcible sexual intercourse between persons who are related to each other  within the degrees wherein marriage is prohibited by law”  Statutory Rape o “nonforcible sexual inter course with a person who is under the statutory age of  consent” Patterns and Trends   Rape and Sexual Assaults victimization rates have fluctuated over time but have  generally decreased  since 1993 (NCVS)  According to the NCVS estimates, 346,830 people aged 12 or older were victims of rape  or sexual assault in 2012 according to Bureau of Justice Statistics o It is the norm that sex offenders and victims know each other (75.1%) o Only 28.2% reported their raoes or sexual assaults to police (Personal or private  matter; Reported to other official; Offender was unsuccessful; the most common  reason for reporting­ to prevent the victimization of others)  An estimated 62% of the victims of rape and sexual assault in 2012 were female  o Victims were disproportionately low­income urban residents as the same race as  their attackers  o Young adults aged 18­20 reported the highest rates of victimization on 2012  Only 40% of reported rapes to the police were cleared by arrest  o 99% of offenders arrested for rape were male, 65%were white and 86% were over the age of 18 o Rapist rarely murder their victims contrary to media stereotypes and popular  fiction  The frequency of rape on college campuses is surprisingly high  o According to study by Kos et al., (1986; 1987), 53% of college women reported  having experienced some unwanted sexual contact while 15% had been victims of completed and 12% had been victims of attempted rapes  o In a review of multiple studies, even larger numbers emerge  26.1% of college female seniors report being victims of attempted of  completed sexual assault  Victimization occurs mostly during freshman and sophomore years and  75­80% of victims know the attacker  Explanations   Identifying the relevant causes rape is prerequisite for doing something about it   Psychiatric explanations of rape often examine unresolved needs and conflicts in the  offender’s past  o A majority of adult rapists reported committing their first offense by the age 16,  although most incidents go undetected   A number of background characteristics increase the likelihood of a person becoming a  rapists  o Sexual trauma as a child or being victimized sexually  o Insecurity about masculine identity o Alcohol and drug use o Strong need for control and high levels of hostility   Typology of rape by growth (1990) o Power Reassurance­ Offender has a lack of confidence and inadequacy,  expressed through a need for control and humiliation of the victim.. Seeks to  dominate the victim  o Anger Retaliatory­ Offender behavior suggest a great deal of displaced rage and  violence towards a specific person or group, Taking revenge on a victim rho is  symbolic of those who have hurts the offender. Displaced anger o Anger Excitation­ Offender gets sexual gratification from inflicting pain on the  victim. Sadistic in nature  o Opportunistic­ Offender id out to satisfy immediate sexual impulses often while  committing another crime. Motivation is sexual in nature rather than anger driven  Feminist theories  o Sociocultural theories of rape (ex. Norms and values regarding sexuality and  attitudes toward women) o In most rapes prone societies, female authority and power were low and  masculinity was expressed by interpersonal violence or toughness  o Scully and Marolla (1985) interviewed 114 convicted rapists  Means of exacting revenge and punishment   Achieving a “Bonus” while committing another crime   Obtaining sexual access to women who would otherwise be unavailable   Exercising sexual power and control o In general society, callous attitudes and beliefs in rape myths increase the  likelihood in committed rape/ sexual assault   Social Cognitive Theories  o Attitudes and behaviors supportive of rape can be learned and reinforced through  social interaction with others   1) Imitation of witnessed acts of violence and coercion toward women   2) May associate sex and violence by viewing materials that exhibits sex  and violence in the same context   3) Rape myths and perpetuated and reinforced by media   4) Heavy viewers of television may become desensitized to sexual  aggression  o Some “popular” rape myths: “No means yes”; Nice girls don’t get rapes; it is  impossible to rape an unwilling victim ect.  Multifactor Theories  o Attempt to explain how different relationships among underlying causes can  interactively shape sexual offending  Interventions   Rape Law Reform  o Spurred by advocacy of women’s groups (Michigan in 1975; California’s  multifaceted)  Incarceration o Does incarceration of sex offenders reduce recidivism?  On average, offenders served 3.5 years of their 8­ year sentences in 1994 o During three year follow­up, released sex­offenders three times more likely to be  rearrested for another sex offense (5.3% vs 1.3%) than non­ sex offenders (less  likely to be arrested for non­sex offenses than non­sex offenders)  Sex Offender Notification and Registration Laws  o The office of Sex Offender sentencing, Monitoring, Apprehending, Registering,  and Tracking (SMART)  Provides jurisdictions with guidance on the implementation of the Adam  Walsh Act and provides technical assistance to states  o Each state has its own distinct sex offender registration and notification system  o Little research to date has examined the effects of no­line registries on public  safety  Malesky & Keim (2001) surveyed counselors who treat sex­offenders   70% felt internet sex­offender registries create false sense of security  Victims   Studies show that those who avoided rape used a greater number of strategies than those  who did not  o Avoiders more likely to scream, flee, use force against attacker  o Raped women more likely to beg or plead   As a result of advocacy by women’s groups and increased public awareness of the  difficulties that face rape victims, many counseling and assistance programs have been  developed  o Women organized against Rape(WOAR)  Provides information and support to allow victims to understand all the  services available  Sex offenders programs   Offenders must be willing to admit responsibility for their offenses and demonstrate  consistent cognitive and behavioral change prior to release   Overall, studies tend to show that treatment of offenders can lower rates of reoffending  and re­incarceration  o Reductions, however, tend to be small  Need multimodal programs that include individual group psychotherapy, substance abuse counseling, vocational training, behavioral interventions, and even psychohormonal  therapies 


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