Psychology 1000 Chapter 6 class notes.
Psychology 1000 Chapter 6 class notes. Psych 1000
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elyssa Tuininga on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 1000 at East Carolina University taught by Kelly Rudolph in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 03/01/16
Chapter 6: Sensation and Perception. Basic Principles of Sensation and Perception. Sensation: The basic process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive stimulus from our surrounding environment. Perception: How our brains make sense of and organize the sensory input. Bottom-up processing: Taking sensory information and then assembling and integrating it. The perception directs the cognition. Top-down processing: Using experiences to interpret sensory information. Perception is driven by cognition. Transduction: In sensation, the transforming of stimuli, such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brain can interpret. Absolute threshold: the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus. Anything below the absolute threshold is subliminal. The second you detect a difference between two levels of stimulus is your difference threshold. Weber’s Law: the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant amount). Sensory Adaptation: When we are around something so much we forget that it is there. (the ticking of a clock for example) Perceptual Set: When we expect to see something, it could affect what we actually see. Our senses can be primed by our preexisting schemas and stereotypes. We can also be primed by our motivations, social context, and emotional state. Vision: Wavelength: the distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next. The wavelength of a light ray determines its hue (color). Intensity: the amount of energy in a light or sound wave, which we perceive as brightness or loudness, as determined by the wave’s height. Iris: The colored part of your eye. Retina: contains rods and cones, which process light into neural impulses. Rods are responsible for processing black and white as well as our peripheral vision. Cones are responsible for processing colors and bright light. Optic nerve: the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain. The information coming in through the right eye is processed on the left side of the brain, and the information coming in through the left eye is processed on the right side of the brain. Blind spot: the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a “blind” spot because no receptor cells are located there. Everyone has a blind spot. Feature detectors: neurons that respond to certain visual aspects of the environment when they recognize them. Certain sections of the brain will “light up” in response to those aspects. (For example, the ‘flower’ section of the brain responds when it receives information that you are looking at a flower). Parallel processing: the processing of many aspects of a problem at the same time; the brain’s natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision. Young-Helmholtz trichromatic (three-color) theory: the theory that the retina contains three different color receptors—one most sensitive to red, one to green, one to blue—which, when stimulated in combination, can produce the perception of any color. Opponent process theory: The theory that the neural processes of perceiving white versus black, yellow versus blue, and red versus green are opposite, and enable color vision. Visual organization: Our experience influences our perception. Gestalt: Our tendency to make a random pattern form a whole picture rather than just a bunch of parts. Figure-ground: the organization of the visual field into objects that stand out from their surroundings. Depth perception: the ability to see objects in three dimensions although the images that strike the retina are two-dimensional; allows us to judge distance. Interposition: When one object blocks the view of the other, we realize it is closer. Binocular cues: depth cues, such as retinal disparity, that depend on the use of two eyes. Our eyes have 2 slightly different views of the world. Monocular cues: depth cues, such as interposition and linear perspective, available to either eye alone. Examples of this are linear perspective, depth, relative height, shading effects, and relative motion. Perceptual constancy: perceiving objects as unchanging in size, shape, or color, even as illumination and retinal images change. Audition, or Hearing: Frequency: the number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time. The frequency determines the highness or lowness of a sound, or its pitch. middle ear: the chamber between the eardrum and cochlea containing three tiny bones (hammer, anvil, and stirrup) Cochlea: a coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear. Sound waves traveling through the cochlear fluid trigger nerve impulses. Touch: Pain is your body’s way of telling you something has gone wrong. Women are more pain sensitive than men are typically. The level of pain we experience is determined by our psychological, biological, and socio-cultural experiences and situation. We can be distracted from our pain, and be caused to not feel it as badly if we are concentrating on something else. Taste: There are five difference sensations for taste: Sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and umami (savoriness). Our tongue has different receptors for different tastes, called taste buds. As we age, our taste buds become less receptive. Smell: Smell is a chemical sense, like taste. We smell something when molecules of a substance carried in the air reach our receptor cells at the top of each nasal cavity. We have the capacity to recognize long-forgotten odors and their associated memories. Sensory interaction: the principle that one sense may influence another, as when the smell of food influences its taste. Body Position and movement: Kinesthesis: the system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts. Vestibular sense: the sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance. Embodied cognition: the influence of bodily sensations, gestures, and other states on cognitive preferences and judgments. Extrasensory perception (ESP): the claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input, such as telepathy, precognition, and clairvoyance.