Intro World Geography - South America
Intro World Geography - South America GR 1123
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Arlandria on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GR 1123 at Mississippi State University taught by Claire Babineaux in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Into World Geography in Geography at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 03/01/16
South America Fun facts about South America Contains 12 states Mountains in the West; Amazon Basin in the East Most of the continent's population lives in Brazil Most of the populace lives on the coasts Contains the world's highest waterfall, Angel Falls in Venezuela (over 3,200 ft high) South America is the 4th largest continent by landmass More than 20% of Earth's oxygen is produced in South America (rainforests) Brazil has won more world cups than any other country in the world (5 titles) 51% of the S.A. population speaks Portuguese Rich in Natural Resources o Gold, timber, water oil Physical Geography Longest continent from north to south o 4750 miles long o Chile is 90 miles wide but 2500 miles long o Brazil is the 5th biggest country in the world The size of SA allows it to have a wide variety of climates and vegetation o Mostly tropical rainforests o Argentina is one of the most diverse with 5 different climate zones Andes Mountains o The world longest mountain chain o 23,000 ft. high; 4300 miles long o Rocky Mnts are only 3000 miles long Amazon Basin o 2nd longest river in the world o Mostly located in Brazil Brazilian Highlands o Comprises of several small mountains ranges Pampas o The "Great Plains" of SA, mostly in Argentina The Incan Civilization Titicaca Valley o One of SA largest lake o World's highest navigable body of water (12,507) Combination of several cultures o Most were well established by the year 1000 o Predominately lived in areas called Altiplanos (High Plains) o Capitol: Cusco, Peru Very advanced for the time o Built huge buildings, roads, bridges in the mountains o Practiced surgery, and were great military strategists o Terracing Spanish Conquest In 1531 Spanish arrived and enslaved the Incan Empire o Used the existing empire for their benefit (the Mit'a system) o Forced the Incan ppl into mining silver o Land Alienation Led by Conquistador Francisco Pizarro o One of his captains was….. Hernando deSoto Silver mining created huge wealth for the Spanish o Spread their colonies to Argentina, Bolivia, Uruguay o Potosi ("vale un Potosi") Mean while the Portuguese took over indigenous populations in Brazil 90% of the indigenous population died of disease and dangerous working conditions Formation of the ViceRoyalty Vice - Latin for "in place of" Roi - French for "King" Formed to help the Crown control populations and territories around the globe: 3 Spanish viceroys established in SA: 1. Peru (1542-1824) 2. Nueva (New) Grenada (1717-1819) 3. Rio dela Plata (1776-1814) Independence from Europe: 1800's to 1900's Spurred by the American and French Revolutions o Made Spain nervous Spain relinquished some claims in SA; choosing to focus on Spain mainland o Argentina o Chile o Peru Simon Bolivar "the great El Libertador", helped free other states: o Venezuela o New Granada (Columbia) o Ecuador o Bolivia (named in his honor) Other independence Brazil became independent in 1822 after Portugal was invaded by Napoleon Uruguay from 1828 Brazil and Argentina Guyana from the UK in 1966 Suriname from the Dutch in 1975 French Guiana currently remains under French control African Descendants Sugar was the huge crop of Brazil Unlike the Spanish, Portugal had no slave population to help with plantation work, mining Half of all slaves brought to the Americans ended up in brazil 198 million Africans live in Brazil today Most of SA's population is along the coast South American Economic Geography 1st - agriculture o Sugar, soy bean, coffee 2nd - manufacturing o Chemicals, electronics, textiles, biofuels 3rd - Oil Production o Brazil and Venezuela Unevenly developed o Only contained to Brazil, Chile, and Argentina's urbans area (coasts) Political instability for most countries South American Union UNASUR - Union of South American Nations o Founded in 2008 o Single currency o Shared defense o Passport o Infrastructure Not quite effective… o Political o Resources o Interest Mercosur - the "Southern Common Market" Purpose is to promote free trade and the fluid movement of goods, people, and currency Economic bloc containing Member States and Associate States SA Urbanization City populations have grown steadily since 1950 >80% of the populations is urban o And fast growing Cities provide opportunities o Increased chance of making more money o Receive better education for their children o More "things" to do (sound familiar?) Megacities o Cities that contain more than 10 million people Poverty in SA Disparity of Rich and Poor o Favelas Problems in SA Disparity of Rich and Poor Slums produce crime and disease Very high levels of corruption o Columbia: drug trade o Venezuela: murder rate is high US/China/SA Relationship US o Monroe Doctrine to keep Europe out of South America (1820s) The European powers were obligated to respect the Western Hemisphere as the United States' sphere of interest o Tried to keep out communism out during the Cold War (1950's - 80's) Bolivia Chinas is Brazil's and Chile's largest trading partner o Assisting with building of infrastructure o Why is China involved? The oil and Natural resources of SA Human Geographic Regions of South America The Caribbean North The Andean West The Southern Cone Brazil The Caribbean North Region Plantation type lifestyle with European influence in Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana o Population mostly along the coast Colombia and Venezuela rich in farming, ranching, and mining o Population is somewhat inland than on the coast Colombia Population tends to congregate in the Andean Mountains and in the North interior Coffee is the largest export o (narcotics are next; 70% of the US cocaine comes from Colombia) Cartels influence the political system, army, and police o Fight for control of the trade, network and growing of coca plants o Almost overthrew the government in 1999 In some cases cartel have their own army to fight the state and police Insurgent States Several stages: o Contention: a rebellion forms and sustains itself within the countries boarders o Equilibrium: forms territories within the countries At the stage an insurgent state is established in which they secede or bring down the government o Counteroffensive: legitimate state or country tries to take back control of insurgent area Sometimes outside help Failed State Measured on a spectrum (Failed State Index, FSI) A product of: o Social indicators Refugees, boarder disputes, large vengeance seeking group o Economic indicators Uneven economic development, group-based poverty or inequality Sharp and or severe economic decline o Political factors Criminalization of goverment officials Pubic services deteriorate Widespread human rights violations Venezuela 29.7 million people live in Venezuela o Mostly in the highlands (close to the resources) o Farming and cattle grazing 2 Main resources areas: o Guiana Highlands Iron o Maracaibo Lowlands Oil Contains the world largest water fall (Angel Falls) Largely Spanish decent and Catholic Poor economy is the 1990's o Value of the Venezuelan dollar devalued and social unrest In 1998, Hugo Chavez rose to power 1998 o Re-wrote the constitution (focused on social and economic equality o Tension with the US In 2007, formed United Socialist Party of Venezuela Remained neutral in the drug wars Traded with China Threatened to stop commerce with US o Died of cancer in 2012 Future of the country is unknown at the moment French Guiana Still under French control Official Overseas French Department o Currency…French Euro Economy: o Not much agriculture Slash and Burn Method o Exports gold and seafood o Space industry is big Guiana Space Centre The Andean West Region Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia and Paraguay Most of the Amerindian population is located here today Rich with untapped resources (oil, minerals) Peru Along 1000 miles of SA west coast o Geography defined by 3 zones Coast (desert) Andes (Sierra; Mountainous) Rain forest (Selva; Jungle) o 30.4 million people o 1/2 are Amerindian o Desert Coast City of Lima (500 years old) 40 oases which produce citrus, olives, and vegetables o Sierra (Andes Mountains) Contains remnants of the Incan culture (Quechua) Very poor population, mostly mine workers Produces 20% of the worlds gold Also copper, zinc and lead o Selva (Amazon Rainforest) Contains the city of Iquitos Iquitos can only be reached by traversing the 2300 mile Amazon River Ecuador Situated directly over the equator (hence the name) 14.7 million people o Most live in the fertile valleys and long the Pacific coast Leading export is oil and seafood o Bananas, cattle and coffee to be grown "Isolas de Galapagos" Annexed by Ecuador in 1832 Very interesting biodiversity Visited by Charles Darwin in 1835, while sailing on the H.M.S Beagle Species adaptation on the different islands Bolivia Large Amerindian population Country is divided currently (insurgent state) o Spanish (East) vs. Amerindians (West) o Clash of culture and fight for power 60% speak Spanish o No official language o 90% illiteracy rate The Southern Cone Comprised of 3 countries o Argentina o Chile o Uruguay Tied together through trade o Mercosur Physically diverse o Mountains West/Pampas East Argentina 2nd in area to Brazil 41.3 million people o 3rd after Brazil and Columbia Has a large flat grassland area called the Pampas o Used for farming, cattle production, mostly for Europe Mostly Spanish, heavily influenced by Italians and Germans 91% of the country's population lives in an urban environment Chile Longest North to South country in the world o Along the Andes Mountains Contains 3 regions: o Atacana Desert o Middle Chile o Highland South Mining is huge o Copper Export lots of vegetables to the US Lots of earthquakes (ring of fire) BRIC/BRICK/BRICK's Countries An acronym based on the letter of each country o Brazil o Russia o India o China o (Kenya) o (South Africa) Emerging economies o These countries are growing exponentially at the moment Indicated by: o Growing Middle Class o Science Research Hubs (well educated population) o Huge Populations (tons of workers) Brazil Powerhouse of SA o In resources, people, and geographic area Rich in farmland, tropical rainforest, untapped resources 200 million people, diverse populace o Speak Portuguese and largely influenced by Europe and Africa o Heavily mixed population (moderate race relations) o 13 cities over 1 million people o Catholicism prevalent (70% of the population) Brazil comes from the Portuguese/Amerindian word "pau-brasil" which means brazilwood o Lots of wood exports Soccer is the national sport Brazil Economy Economy has done well since adopting Democracy in 1989 Common exports o Agriculture o Mining o Manufacturing Tourism is huge o Rainforest o Beaches Goal is outpace the US in food production
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