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PSY 260 Preschool years

by: Emily Smith

PSY 260 Preschool years PSY 260 01 (Psychology, Lifespan Development)

Emily Smith
GPA 3.46

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About this Document

These notes cover the dates 2/22/16-2/26/16 and cover the material of physical, cognitive and social development in preschoolers.
Lifespan Development
Dr. Joyce
Class Notes
PSY 260, lifespan development, Preschool years
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Smith on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 260 01 (Psychology, Lifespan Development) at Murray State University taught by Dr. Joyce in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see Lifespan Development in Psychlogy at Murray State University.

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Date Created: 03/01/16
PSY 260 Preschool Years Physical Growth A. Gain of 5­6 pounds per year  due to increase in height (2 ½  inches average) a. There is a variation in this due to nutrition and heredity b. Body typically gets more slender  loss of baby fat c. Head size is taking up a smaller portion of the body i. i.e. instead of being ¼ of the total body size, is now  1/5 of size B. Individual difference in height and weight a. Gender b. Affected globally  nutrition (family’s ability to provide for  children) C. Changes in body shape and structure a. Children vary in height, weight and shape b. Toddler burns off fat c. Internal physical changes i. i.e. increase in muscle size, bone sturdiness and  improvement in the senses D. Nutrition a. Slower growth than in toddler years = less caloric  requirements b. Eating behaviors based on parents  Food choices and  amounts i. Children can maintain a proper intake of food if  provided nutritious meals and not pressured to  overeat  nd ii. Obesity is a problem in the U.S.  2  highest rate c. NASPE suggests 2 hours a day of physical activity i. 1 hour of structure­based activities (Goal­oriented:  organized sports) ii. 1 hour of non­structured play (Not goal­oriented:  riding a bike) Injury during preschool years A. Accidents are the greatest risks a. Dangers: i. Lack of good judgment  undeveloped frontal lobe ii. Curiousity iii. Increased physical activity B. Range of dangers a. Falls b. Burns c. Drowning d. Suffocation e. Auto accidents f. Poison i. Silent Danger: Lead Poisoning 1. 14 million children at risk 2. U.S. DHHS calls lead poisoning most hazardous health threat to children under 6 years of age 3. Linked to higher levels of anti­social behaviors in school age children 4. Higher Levels of intellectual disabilities a. Aggression b. Delinquency g. Toys  Recalled for a reason i. Lead ii. Pieces that break off that kids can choke on h. Pill­popping preschoolers? i. Increase in number of kids being treated for emotional disorders (I.e. depression) ii. Use of drugs such as antidepressants and stimulants  has grown significantly 1. Highest increased rate of pill­popping for  emotional distress C. Growing Brain a. Growing faster than any other part of the body i. ¾ of adult size at 3 years ii. 95% of adult volume by 6 years of age 1. increase in interconnections among cells and  myelin a. increase in processing efficiency  2. Corpus callosum becomes thicker 3. Lateralization improves D. Gender­Related laterilzation differences a. Boys: i. Greater lateralization of languages in left hemisphere ii. Higher autism incidence (Baron­Cohen’s Theory) OR iii. Gender predisposition to functioning differences b. Girls i. Language is divided more evenly among the two  hemispheres OR ii. Verbal abilities emerge earlier in girls because girls  receive greater encouragement for verbal skills than  boys E. Brain Growth and Cognitive Development a. Growth spurts b. Myelin increase c. Cerebellum and cerebral cortex connection grow F. Motor Development a. Gross motor development i. Age 3: jumping, running, hopping on one foot,  skipping ii. Age 4: Throw ball to friend  accuracy iii. Age 5: Ring toss 5 feet away, ride bikes, climb  ladders, ski b. High activity and increasing brain myelination c. Fine motor skills i. Cut own food, using scissors, coloring, etc. 1. Only improved if practiced ii. Gross motor skills “therapies” 1. Can encourage but not train these skills G.Vaccination a. You are the director of a childcare program b. A parent in your program refuses to immunize their toddler c. What do you do? Potty Wars: Opposing Views A. Brazelton a. Flexible approach i. Waiting until signs of readiness appear B. Rosemond: a. Rigid approach i. Quick and early training C. Current Guidelines from the American Academy of  Pediatrics a. Dry at least 2 hours during day or after nap b. Regular, predictable bowel movements c. Indications that bowel movement or urination is about  to occur d. Ability to follow simple directions e. Ability to get to bathroom and undress on time f. Discomfort with soiled diapers g. Asking to use toilet h. Desire to wear underwear i. Begin only when children are ready Intellectual Development A. Piaget a. Knowledge is product of experience b. All children pass through a specific series of stages i.  Universal ii.  Fixed order 1. Sensorimotor (0­2 years) 2. Preoperational (2­6 years) 3. Concrete Operational (7­12 years) 4. Formal Operational (12 years­adulthood) c. Preoperational Stage i.  Symbolic thinking, mental reasoning, and use of  concepts ii.  Unable to understand conservation and  transformations 1. Too focused on one aspect, can’t see the “big  picture” 2. Conservation example: Same amount of liquid in a glass that is tall and thin as a glass that is  short and wide 3. Transformation: unable to understand what  happens between the beginning and end of  events. Ignores middle steps. d. Language and Thought (Piaget) i.  Symbolic function substage (2­4) 1. Ability to use symbols, words, or objects to  represent something not physically present 2. Egocentric thought (All about me!) 3. Animism a. Belief that inanimate objects have lifelike  qualities and are capable of action (human  vs. nonhuman perspective) e. Intuitive Thought i.  Intuitive thought substage (4­7) 1. 4 year old: cannot answer “what if?” 2. 5 year old: continuously asks “why?” ii.  Curiosity blossoms iii.  Preschoolers think they know answers to all kinds of  questions without logical basis for such confidence f.  Late stages of Intuitive Though i.  Slowly certain qualities prepare children for more  sophisticated forms of reasoning ii.  Begin to understand functionality iii.  Begin to show awareness of identity B. Information processing approaches a. How children process information i.  Understanding of numbers ii.  Attention iii.  Memory development C. Attention a. Sustained attention i.  Focus and extend engagements with an object, task,  event, or other aspect of the environment D. Memory Development a. Central process in children’s cognitive development b. Recollections of events are sometimes, but not always,  accurate i.  Typically accurate in responses to open­ended  questions ii.  Partly determined by how soon memories are  assessed iii.  Affected by cultural factors c. Autobiographical memory i.  Largely inacurrate before age 3 ii.  Not all last into later life E. Vygotsky’s: Cognitive Development a. Cognition result of social interactions in which children  learn through guided participation i.  Tools provided by society ii.  Cultural context in which they live also important b. Children gradually grow intellectually and begin to function  on their own because of adult and peer assistance F. Zone of Proximal Development a. Cognition increases through informational exposure i.  New enough to intrigue but not too difficult b. ZPD: range of tasks that are too difficult for the child to  master alone but can be learned with assistance i.  Lower limit: reached by child working independently ii.  Upper limit: level of additional responsibility the child  accepts from assistance c. Scaffolding: changing the level of support G.Vygotskian Principles a. Learning and development is a social, collaborative activity b. Assess child’s ZPD and use it in teaching c. School learning should occur in a meaningful context d. Relate out­of­school experience to child’s school  experience Growth of Language and Learning A. Syntax doubles each month B. Enormous leaps in number of words used through fast mapping C. Fast mapping: process by which new concepts or words are  learned after a single exposure to them a. Often done through exclusion (i.e. “That is not a cat, so it  must be a dog!) D. Language Development a. Knowledge of morphology rules i. Plurals and possessives ii. Prepositions, articles, to be b. Syntax and Semantics i. Wh­ questions c. Fast Mapping E. Preschool Language on the Grow a. Use of the plural and possessive forms of nouns b. Use of the past tense c. Use of articles d. Ability to both ask and answer complex questions e. Extend appropriate formation of words to new words f. Begin to learn grammar rules F. Private Speech a. Speech that is spoken to oneself (talking to yourself) i. Important ii. Acts as a sounding board for exploring ideas iii. Helps in controlling behavior iv. Important social function G.Practical Communication? a. Pragmatics: Communicating effectively and appropriately  with others b. Helps children to understand the basics of: i. Turn­taking ii. Sticking to a topic iii. Speaking in an appropriate manner iv. Use of different language in various settings H. Social Speech a. Before age 3: i. Done only for own entertainment ii. Unaware as to whether or not others can understand  them b. During preschool years: i. Begins to direct speech to others ii. Want others to listen iii. Become frustrated when they cannot make  themselves understood iv. Begin to adapt their speech to others I. Poverty and Language Development a. Language heard in the home has profound implications for  future cognitive success b. Hart and Risley (1995) i. Affluence of parents  more speech to children ii. In families that received welfare assistance, children  appeared to be exposed to fewer words J. Language as Thought a. Language used to assist in task­solving b. Language as self­regulation Learning from the Media A. “Television Literacy” in preschoolers? a. Rarely understand plots in their entirety b. Missing important details in the story c. Limited inferences about motivations d. Fantasy vs. Reality  inability to understand School B. There has been an increase in the number of children attending  out­of­home care (after­school activities, daycare, etc.) C. It has been shown that there are some benefits to being provided educational activities before regular schooling Varieties of early education A. Child­care centers B. Family child care – informal C. Preschools a. Montessori b. Reggio Emilia D. School­age child care Effective? A. Results show: a. More verbally fluent, improved memory, improved IQ b. Social confidence, independence, peer activity c. More likely to disrespect adults B. Recent Research a. Diamond, Barnett, Thomas, & Munro (2008) i. Executive Attention 1. If practiced, improved! C. Characteristics of Quality Child Care a. Well­trained providers b. Appropriate ratio of child care provider ­ child c. Carefully planned curriculum d. Rich language environment e. Sensitive caregivers f. Age appropriate g. Basic health and safety standards are met D. US Preschool a. Not mandatory  there is a push for this! b. No coordinated national policy i. Decisions overs education traditionally left to state  and school districts ii. No tradition of actually teaching preschoolers iii. Graduates of high quality preschool programs more  likely to live successful lives Social and Personality Development Erikson [Initiative vs. Guilt] 3­6 years A. Initiative – Most kids a. Desire to act independently – succeed eventually B. Guilt a. Comes from failure when they don’t succeed  C. Self­understanding a. Representation of self in social world i. Self­recognition – average 2­3 years of age ii. Positive view of self – egotistic Emotional Development A. Improved B. Around age of 2 a. talk about and engage in regulation strategies C. Preschoolers a. Develop more effective strategies b. Learn language c. Negotiate w/ others d. John Gottman – big name in this research topic Emotion Coaching A. Emotion coaching parents a. Monitor b. Negative emotions looked at as learning opportunites   healthy c. Assist in labeling emotions d. Coach to deal with effectively i. Pat on the back  helpful? B. Emotion dismissing Parents a. Deny, ignore or change negative emotions b. Slows kids down C. Forming a sense of self a. Identity b. Set of beliefs about what we are like i. Overinflated c. Cultural i. Collectivist  Asian ii. Individualist  US D. Racial and Ethnical Awareness a. Racial and ethnic identity begin to form b. Skin color noticed early c. Cultural meaning attached later E. By age 4 a. Differentiate race b. Mirror attitudes F. Race Dissonance a. Minority children indicate preferences for majority values or  people i. The result of powerful influence of dominant white  culture  b. NO disparagement of own racial characteristics; still loves  and prefers self even though may identify another race as  typically preferred  egotistical view saves self G.Ethnic Identity a. Emerges later than race identity i. Usually less conspicuous than race ii. Bilingual vs. monolingual H. Gender identity a. Sex (Biological) vs. Gender (Social) b. Gender Roles i. By age of 2 years: 1. Consistently label self and others as either male  or female c. Kohlberg (1966) i. Age 4­5, gender constancy d. Social Theories of Gender i. Psychoanalytic Theory [Freud] ii. Social Cognitive Theory 1. Observation and imitation of others 2. Rewards and punishments iii. Social Role Theory (Eagly] 1. Social hierarchy and division of labor e. Theoretical Perspectives in Gender i. Biological 1. Inborn, genetic factors produce genetic  differences ii. Cognitive: Gender Schema Theory 1. Gradually develop gender schemas of what is or isn’t appropriate in one’s culture f. Gender Expectations i. Preschooler expects girls: 1. Show warmth 2. Be expressive 3. Be submissive ii. Expects boys: 1. Be dominant 2. Be competent 3. Be forceful g. Gender and Play i. Boys: 1. Rough 2. Same­sex  age 3 ii. Girls 1. Organized games and roleplaying 2. Same­sex  age 2 iii. Sandra Bem and androgenous children 1. Encourage positive characteristics of both  sexes: warm and independent 2. Better social/emotional development Friends and Family  preschooler’s social life A. Plays helps social, cognitive and physical development a. View of friendship evolves b. Become more sophisticated and cooperative c. More dependent of soc./cog. Skills B. Some children are better liked than others: a. Popular children vs. unpopular children C. Views of friendship evolves w/ age and older preschoolers a. Continuing state; stable relationship i. If we are best friends today, we are still going to be  best friends tomorrow b. Learn about trust and support; importance of shared  interests Categorizing Play A. Functional Play a. Simple, repetitive  accomplishes nothing B. Constructive play a. Produces or builds something C. Social Aspects of Play  Parten (1932) a. Onlooker  watch people play b. Solitary  play alone c. Parallel  playing beside someone d. Associative  working together for first time e. Cooperative  play in a group w/ cooperation (i.e. House) i.Sociodramatic  like a theatre production


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