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Psychology 1000 Chapter 7 class notes.

by: Elyssa Tuininga

Psychology 1000 Chapter 7 class notes. Psych 1000

Marketplace > East Carolina University > Psychlogy > Psych 1000 > Psychology 1000 Chapter 7 class notes
Elyssa Tuininga

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These notes cover what was in the lecture for Chapter 7 of our text.
Introduction to Psychology
Kelly Rudolph
Class Notes
Psychology 1000 Chapter 7 lecture notes.
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elyssa Tuininga on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 1000 at East Carolina University taught by Kelly Rudolph in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at East Carolina University.


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Date Created: 03/01/16
Chapter 7: Learning We learn from experience and association.  Associative learning: learning that certain events occur together.  Cognitive learning: the acquisition of mental information, whether by observing events, by watching others, or through language. Classical conditioning: a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events. Pavlov is famous for his experiments in classical conditioning with dogs.  neutral stimulus: in classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning  Unconditioned response: in classical conditioning, an unlearned, naturally occurring response to an unconditioned stimulus.  Unconditioned stimulus: in classical conditioning, a stimulus that naturally and automatically triggers a response.  conditioned response: in classical conditioning, a learned response to a previously neutral stimulus  Conditioned stimulus: in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response.  Acquisition: The period of learning/conditioning.  Extinction: The diminishing of a conditioned response.  Spontaneous recovery: when the response comes back after the extinction has already happened.  Generalization: The tendency to have conditioned responses triggered by similar stimuli to the conditioned stimulus.  Discrimination: The learned response to a specific stimulus out of many. John B Watson was a classical conditioner who prided himself on being able to manipulate people’s emotions. He conducted a series of questionable experiments on a baby and managed to condition him to become afraid of rats. Operant Conditioning: a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.  Thorndike’s law of effect: Reinforced behaviors are more likely to be tried again. Punished behaviors are more likely to be avoided.  Reinforcement: in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows.  Shaping: an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior closer and closer toward the desired behavior.  Positive reinforcement: The reward is adding something desirable.  Negative reinforcement: The reward is taking away something that is unpleasant.  Primary reinforcer: Something that meets our basic needs, such as food.  Conditioned reinforcer: a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as a secondary reinforcer. An example of this is money, which is used to buy food, a primary reinforcer.  Reinforcement schedule: a pattern that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced.  Delayed reinforcer: When a reward is given after a period of time, such as a paycheck every two weeks. Also an example of delayed gratification.  Immediate reinforcers: When a reward is given right away for desired behavior, such as giving a treat to a dog right after they listen to you.  Continuous reinforcement: When a reward is given every single time the desired behavior occurs.  Partial, or intermittent reinforcement: When a reward is given only some of the time.  Fixed-ratio schedule: a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses.  Variable-ratio schedule: a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses. (Ex: randomly getting a ‘Good Job!’ from your boss, you don’t know when it’s going to happen).  Fixed-interval schedule: in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed. (Ex: getting paid once a week)  Variable-interval schedule: in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals.  Punishment: an event that tends to decrease the behavior it follows. Positive punishment is adding something unpleasant, Negative punishment is taking something pleasant away.  The difference between reinforcement and punishment is that reinforcement strengthens the target behavior (makes the child do their chores), while punishment reduces the target behavior (causes the child to stop throwing temper tantrums). The difference between classical and operant conditioning is that with classical conditioning, we tend to associate events with other events, and with operant conditioning we tend to associate behaviors with results. B.F. Skinner believed that you could modify behavior by consequences, and that external influences shape our behavior, as opposed to internal thoughts and feelings. Cognition’s effect on conditioning:  Cognitive map: a mental representation of the layout of one’s environment. (such as knowing how to get from your school to your home after driving it several times)  Latent learning: learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it.  Intrinsic motivation: a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake. You receive internalized satisfaction for doing something. Intrinsic motivation can be affected or reduced by external rewards, and it can be prevented by using continuous reinforcement.  Extrinsic motivation: a desire to do something for a reward from other people, or for their approval.  Observational learning: Learning by watching other people.  Vicarious conditioning: learning by experiencing something indirectly. (For example, a child sees their sibling get in trouble for touching a vase, so they learn that they better leave the vase alone.)  Modeling: the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior. (A child sees his father do something, and he wants to do it as well).  Mirror neurons: frontal lobe neurons that some scientists believe fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain’s mirroring of another’s action may enable imitation and empathy. When we watch someone doing something, we can feel the way they do, (happy, sad, etc.)  Prosocial behavior: acting in a way that benefits others, follows social norms and codes. Positive, constructive, helpful behavior.  Antisocial behavior: acting in a way that is harmful to others, with no empathy. Intentionally hurting other people.


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