Psycho notes for the week
Psycho notes for the week PSYC 1010
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Briana Notetaker on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1010 at La Salle University taught by Lacombe in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at La Salle University.
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Date Created: 03/01/16
How Do We CHANGE Over Time? 2.23.15 Areas of development – SocialEmotional, Cognitive, Physical Conception – a single sperm cell penetrates the outer coating of the egg and fuses to form one fertilized egg (egg is called a zygote) Prenatal Development – A zygote turns into an embryo after about 14 days; all organs form at this time At 9 weeks the embryo turns into a fetus; growth of structures and functionality Normal Development – Babies are born with reflexes that aid in survival; including rooting reflexes that help them locate food (Stepping reflex – when feet touch a flat surface they make stepping movements) Frontal lobe mildness takes place in late adolescents Maturation – development of the brain unfolds based on genetic instructions Motor development – sitting unsupported (6 months), crawling (89 months), beginning to walk (12 months), walking independently (15 months) Cognitive development – Piaget believed children explored the world and he focused on how the children would reason with things; development is shaped by the errors we make Assimilation involves incorporating new experiences into our current understanding (schema). Process of adjusting a schema and modifying it is accommodation Piaget’s Theory & Current Thinking – 1 stage – (sensorimotor) experience through senses and actions; Object permanence, stranger anxiety nd 2 stage – (preoperational) representing things with words and images as well as using initiative rather than logical reasoning; Pretend play, egocentrism, language development 3 stage – (concrete operational) thinking logically about concrete events and grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations; Conservation, mathematical transformations 4 stage – (formal operational) abstract reasoning; abstract logic, potential for mature moral reasoning 2.25.16 Colbert’s Preconventional Morality Lowest level : less than nine years of age Good / Bad interpreted in terms of external rewards and punishments Stage 1: Punishment Orientation – Avoid punishment = moral; punishment = immoral Stage 2: Rewards Orientation – Gaining rewards = moral; Costs/ benefits analysis= moral if rewards > punishments. Conventional Level Individuals apply certain standards but they are the standards of others Stage 3: Social approval – individual’s value trust, caring, and loyalty to others as a basis of moral judgments. Moral if others approve, immoral if others don’t approve. Stage 4: Social justice Postconventional Level Highest level of moral reasoning; recognizes alternative moral courses and explores options and decide on personal moral code Stage 5: Social contract and Individual rights – Reasons that values, rights, and principles transcend the law; affirming agreedupon rights Stage 6: Universal Ethical Principles – Develop moral standards based on universal human rights; internalized moral code. Social – Emotional Development Temperament – biological basis for personality traits Attachment – Patterns serve as working models for later relationships Erickson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development Infancy (01 year) – if needs are dependably met, infants develop a sense of basic trust. Toddlerhood (12) – toddlers learn to exercise their will and do things for themselves, or do they doubt their abilities. Preschooler (35) – learn to initiate tasks and carry out plans or they feel guilty about efforts to be independent. Elementary school (6puberty) – children learn pleasures of applying themselves to tasks or they feel inferior. Adolescence (1020’s) – teens try different roles to find their identity or they become confused on who they are. Young adulthood (20’s40’s) – adults struggle to form close relationships and to gain the capacity for intimate love or they feel socially isolated. Middle adulthood (40’s60’s) – middle aged discover a sense of contributing to the world usually through family or work, or they feel a lack of purpose. Late adulthood (late 60’s and up) – when reflecting on life the older adult may feel a sense of satisfaction or failure. Child Rearing Practices Authoritarian – parents impose rules and expect obedience. (my way or the highway strictness) Permissive – Parents submit to children’s demands. (do anything you please) Authoritative – Parents are demanding but responding to their children. ( my way yet reasonable)
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