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Psycho notes for the week

by: Briana Notetaker

Psycho notes for the week PSYC 1010

Marketplace > La Salle University > Psychlogy > PSYC 1010 > Psycho notes for the week
Briana Notetaker
La Salle
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About this Document

things that will be covered on exam
Introductory Psychology
Class Notes
Psychology 155




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Briana Notetaker on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1010 at La Salle University taught by Lacombe in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at La Salle University.

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Date Created: 03/01/16
How Do We CHANGE Over Time? 2.23.15 Areas of development – Social­Emotional, Cognitive, Physical Conception – a single sperm cell penetrates the outer coating of the egg and fuses to form one fertilized  egg (egg is called a zygote) Prenatal Development –   A zygote turns into an embryo after about 14 days; all organs form at this time    At 9 weeks the embryo turns into a fetus; growth of structures and functionality  Normal Development –  Babies are born with reflexes that aid in survival; including rooting reflexes that help them locate  food (Stepping reflex – when feet touch a flat surface they make stepping movements)  Frontal lobe mildness takes place in late adolescents   Maturation – development of  the brain unfolds based on genetic instructions   Motor development – sitting unsupported (6 months), crawling (8­9 months), beginning to walk  (12 months), walking independently (15 months)  Cognitive development – Piaget believed children explored the world and he focused on how the  children would reason with things; development is shaped by the errors we make  Assimilation involves incorporating new experiences into our current understanding (schema).  Process of adjusting a schema and modifying it is accommodation  Piaget’s Theory & Current Thinking –    1  stage – (sensorimotor) experience through senses and actions; Object permanence, stranger  anxiety  nd  2  stage – (preoperational) representing things with words and images as well as using initiative  rather than logical reasoning; Pretend play, egocentrism, language development  3  stage – (concrete operational) thinking logically about concrete events and grasping concrete  analogies and performing arithmetical operations; Conservation, mathematical transformations  4  stage – (formal operational) abstract reasoning; abstract logic, potential for mature moral  reasoning 2.25.16 Colbert’s Pre­conventional Morality  Lowest level : less than nine years of age  Good / Bad interpreted in terms of external rewards and punishments  Stage 1: Punishment Orientation – Avoid punishment = moral; punishment = immoral  Stage 2: Rewards Orientation – Gaining rewards = moral; Costs/ benefits analysis= moral if  rewards > punishments. Conventional Level  Individuals apply certain standards but they are the standards of others   Stage 3: Social approval – individual’s value trust, caring, and loyalty to others as a basis of  moral judgments. Moral if others approve, immoral if others don’t approve.  Stage 4: Social justice  Post­conventional Level   Highest level of moral reasoning; recognizes alternative moral courses and explores options  and decide on personal moral code  Stage 5: Social contract and Individual rights – Reasons that values, rights, and principles  transcend the law; affirming agreed­upon rights  Stage 6: Universal Ethical Principles – Develop moral standards based on universal human  rights; internalized moral code. Social – Emotional Development   Temperament – biological basis for personality traits   Attachment – Patterns serve as working models for later relationships  Erickson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development  Infancy (0­1 year) – if needs are dependably met, infants develop a sense of basic trust.   Toddlerhood (1­2) – toddlers learn to exercise their will and do things for themselves, or do they  doubt their abilities.  Preschooler (3­5) – learn to initiate tasks and carry out plans or they feel guilty about efforts to  be independent.  Elementary school (6­puberty) – children learn pleasures of applying themselves to tasks or they  feel inferior.  Adolescence (10­20’s) – teens try different roles to find their identity or they become confused  on who they are.  Young adulthood (20’s­40’s) – adults struggle to form close relationships and to gain the  capacity for intimate love or they feel socially isolated.  Middle adulthood (40’s­60’s) – middle aged discover a sense of contributing to the world usually through family or work, or they feel a lack of purpose.  Late adulthood (late 60’s and up) – when reflecting on life the older adult may feel a sense of  satisfaction or failure. Child Rearing Practices  Authoritarian – parents impose rules and expect obedience. (my way or the highway strictness)  Permissive – Parents submit to children’s demands. (do anything you please)  Authoritative – Parents are demanding but responding to their children. ( my way yet reasonable)


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