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Systemic Physiology

by: Mrs. Sierra Bailey

Systemic Physiology NPB 101

Mrs. Sierra Bailey
GPA 3.85

Charles Fuller

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Charles Fuller
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Sierra Bailey on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NPB 101 at University of California - Davis taught by Charles Fuller in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see /class/191822/npb-101-university-of-california-davis in Neurobiology,Physio & Behavior at University of California - Davis.

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Date Created: 09/08/15
NPB 101 SAMPLE EXAM QUESTIONS Homeostasis is EDP99 an underlying principle of physiology a dynamic steady state maintained by the process of regulation only a and b are correct a b and c are all correct The NaK ATPase pump of the axon of a neuron EDP99 s is a lipid molecule in the membrane pumps 2 Na ions for every 2 K ions establishes the ion gradients for Na and K only a and b are correct a b and c are all correct The Nernst potential is a the membrane potential of the cell b a log relationship of the ratio of the concentration of an ion outside relative to inside the cell c determined by the ion channel leaks for sodium and potassium d only a and b are correct e a b and c are all correct Ion permeability Pi is a determined by the availability of ion channels for ion i in the membrane b may be altered by various stimuli including mechanical chemical and electrical stimuli c directly related to the electrochemical equilibrium for ion i d only a and b are correct e a b and c are all correct If a neuron were experimentally stimulated at both ends simultaneously a b 99 the action potentials would pass in the middle and travel to the opposite ends the action potentials would meet in the middle and then be conducted back to their starting positions the action potentials would stop as they met in the middle the stronger of the two action potentials would override the weaker action potential summation would occur when the action potentials met in the middle resulting in a larger action potential An action potential conducted down an axon requires the presence of a EDPoer voltagestimulated Na channels NaK ATPase electrogenic pump voltage stimulated Ca channels only a and b are correct a b and c are all correct Two adjacent axon terminals one from neuron A the other from neuron B synapse on a third neuron C The two axon terminals simultaneously release transmitter eliciting an action potential in neuron C This is an example of a convergence b temporal summation c spatial summation d only a and b are correct e only a and c are correct At an excitatory synapse an action potential in the a postsynaptic neuron depolarizes the presynaptic membrane b presynaptic neuron increases the permeability of the postsynaptic membrane to N a and K c presynaptic neuron increases the permeability of the postsynaptic membrane only to K d only a and b are correct e a b and c are all correct Tonic receptors a are useful in signaling the stimulus level to the nervous system b are primarily proprioceptors c adapt rapidly d only a and b are correct e a b and c are all correct Which of the following is not a graded potential excitatory postsynaptic potential inhibitory postsynaptic potential generator potential action potential a b c and d are all graded potentials 9999 The pitch of a sound is a determined by the frequency of vibrations of air molecules b measured in decibels c perceived as sound waves move over the helicotrema of the inner ear d only a and b are correct e a b and c are all correct High and low frequency sounds are discriminated chie y by low frequencies producing stronger vibrations high frequencies producing larger action potentials the middle ear bones vibrating more vigorously for low frequencies low frequencies deflecting the basilar membrane at a greater distance from the oval Window e low frequencies setting up uid vibrations in the perilymph 999 Stimulation of a photoreceptor by light causes a b C P hyperpolarization of the photoreceptor and reduction in the synaptic release of L Glutamate depolarization of the depolarizing bipolar cell by opening Na channels excitation of the ganglion cell synaptically connected to the depolarizing bipolar cell only a and b are correct a b and c are all correct An individual that suffers extensive damage to the right occipital lobe would have a b c d e loss of vision from the left eye loss of vision from the right eye loss of vision from the left visual eld loss of vision from the right visual field m of the above are correct Re exes are a b C d e stereotyped responses to a fixed stimulus seen in the reflexes of motor control where a sensor activates an afferent fiber which in turn either monosynaptically or via interneurons alters the activity of motorneurons and the muscles to which it is synaptically connected seen only in the autonomic nervous system only a and b are correct a b and c are all correct Which of the following does not directly influence the lower motor neurons EDP07 primary motor cortex cerebellum brain stem Afferent neurons monosynaptically or through interneurons none of the above are correct Intrafusal muscle fibers are EDP032 innervated by alpha motor neurons found Within muscle spindles sensory nerve endings that are activated by muscle tension only a and b are correct a b and c are all correct Parkinson s disease a DP07 is associated with a deficiency of serotonin is characterized by a resting tremor is characterized by an intention tremor only a and b are correct only a and c are all correct The sympathetic nervous system a b 0 05 is always excitatory dominates is excitatory in fight or ight situations innervates only tissues concerned with protecting the body against challenges from the outside environment only a and b are correct a b and c are all correct Which of the following statements concerning negative feedback is incorrect a b P negative feedback exists when a change in a regulated variable triggers a response in the controlled system that opposes the change negative feedback exists when the input to a system increases the output and the output limits its own production by inhibiting the input with negative feedback a control system s input and output continue to enhance each other most of the body s homeostatic control mechanisms operate on the principle of negative feedback a b c and d are all correct During excitation contraction coupling of skeletal muscle 99 0 the action potential travels down the sarcolema and the transverse tubules Ca is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca binds to tropomyosin leading to a conformational shift and exposing the actin binding sites only a and b are correct a b and c are all correct Which of the following is Lot involved in the relaxation of skeletal muscle EDP99 degradation of acetylcholine by acetylcholinesterase in the end plate when there is no longer an action potential when the transverse tubules actively take up the Ca that had been released when the actin and myosin molecules are no longer actively bound together when the troponin tropomyosin complex slips back into its blocking position Twitch summation of skeletal muscle a 99 05 is a means by which gradation of the force of muscle contraction may be accomplished results from increasing the number of motor units that are firing within a muscle results from decreasing the frequency at which motor units are firing within a muscle only a and b are correct a b and c are all correct Single unit smooth muscle a b C 99 contains an gap junctions which can spread depolarization over a sheet of cells is self excitable is found among other locations in the walls of the digestive reproductive and urinary tracts only a and b are correct a b and c are all correct The sense of taste arises from varying combinations of five primary tastes salty sour sweet bitter and umami stimulation of chemical receptors located in taste buds stimulation of chemical receptors which have a life span of approximately 10 days only a and b are correct a b and c are all correct EDP99 Smell or olfaction is a sensed by primary chemical receptors located in the roof of the nasal cavity b a rapidly adapting sense c the result of varying combinations of approximately ten primary receptor types d only a and b are correct e a b and c are all correct The vestibular sensors a detect position and motion of the head are located in the semicircular canals and the otolith organs are hair cell receptors only a and b are correct a b and c are all correct EDP99 The macular receptors e g utricle of the inner ear a requires movement of the hair cell cilia imbedded in the cupula of the semicircular canals for activation b is a hair cell receptor located on the basilar membrane 0 is sensitive to linear acceleration d only a and b are correct e a b and c are all correct Neuromodulators in contrast to neurotransmitters a are responsible for the postsynaptic potentials at the postsynaptic membrane b are larger polypeptides 240 amino acids in length c act rapidly d only a and b are correct e a b and c are all correct The functions of the nervous system include transfer of information transduction of efferent information maintenance of glial cells only a and b are correct a b and c are all correct sup99 Consider a sample of normal human blood that contains approximately 58 plasma This blood would a have a hematocrit of about 42 b would contain about 40 leukocytes by volume c would contain about 40 platelets by volume d would contain over 40 erythrocytes by volume e a and d In the systemic circulation the distribution of total blood volume is such that a The Capillaries have the highest blood volume because even though they are very small in diameter and relatively short in length they are very numerous b The Arteries have the highest blood volume because they are very elastic c The Veins have the highest blood volume because they are very compliant over a normal range of transmural pressures d All of the above e None of the above Application of a drug which increased K potassium conductance permeability during phase 4 of the Sino Atrial nodal action potential would be expected to a decrease the slope of the pacemaker potential b cause a decrease in heart rate c cause a positive inotropic response in SA nodal cells d a and b e all of the above Considering all the potentially self excitatory tissue in the heart the Sino Atrial node is the normal cardiac pacemaker because a phase zero of the SA nodal action potential is caused by rapid Na sodium in ux b increased Ca calcium conductance permeability causes repolarization of SA nodal cells c the SA node has the highest natural rate of spontaneous action potential generation of all potentially selfexcitatory cardiac tissues d the SA node is the only potential cardiac pacemaker innervated by motor nerves e none of the above Cardiac muscle differs from skeletal muscle in that a there is no release of Ca calcium from the SR Sarcoplasmic Reticulum during excitation contraction coupling in cardiac myofibers b cardiac myofibers are innervated by autonomic nerve fibers c the force of cardiac muscle contraction can not be summated as a result of an increase of frequency of stimulation d all of the above e b and 0 Consider the following values for a systemic capillary Pcap 20 ran g Pint 2 mmHg COPcap 30 mmHg COPint 10 mmHg permeability is normal and body temperature 37 C One would expect a net capillary filtration b net capillary reabsorption During the normal cardiac cycle the period of time that elapses from the opening of the AV Atrio Ventricular valves until the generation of the next ventricular contraction is a characterized by ventricular filling b ventricular Systole c the period of isovolumetric ventricular relaxation d a period of rising arterial blood pressure e a and d Consider the normal effects of exercise on a whole skeletal muscle As a result of a modest increase in frequency and force of contraction one would expect a Intracellular PC02 in the muscle to increase from the level it had when the muscle was at rest b total vascular resistance in the muscle to increase as a result of increased sympathetic nervous system SNS activity c total capillary blood flow in the muscle to increase from its resting level as a result of metabolic vasodilation d all of the above e a and 0 Blood will not clot in the absence of a Thrombin b Fibrinogen c sunlight d a and b e All of the above In compensation for a significant fall in mean systemic arterial blood pressure such as could be caused by hemorrhage one would expect a An increase in sympathetic nervous system SNS activity b Positive inotropism in the myocardium c Increased renal and intestinal vascular resistance d all of the above e a and b Human Red Blood Cells Erythrocytes a contain hemoglobin b are produced in the kidneys c are the most abundant cellular type in blood d all of the above e a and 0 Systemic Capillaries a provide significant resistance to blood ow because of the high density of sympathetic SNS innervation of the vascular smooth muscle present within the capillary wall b Are more permeable to plasma proteins than blood gases c Have a relatively high velocity of blood flow as compared to arteries and veins d All of the above e None of the above The major physiological means of decreasing heat loss in response to cold environmental temperature is a skin vasoconstriction b muscle vasoconstriction c shivering d increasing metabolic activity ie exercising e a and c Which of the following would result in increased mean systemic arterial blood pressure in an otherwise normal resting individual a increased renal release of renin b A decrease in the frequency of firing of carotid sinus and aortic arch barorecptors c bradycardia d all of the above e a and b Consider a blood vessel in which the upstream blood pressure is 30 mmHg the downstream blood pressure is 20 mmHg and the blood ow rate is 5mlmin The vascular resistance in this vessel would be a 02 mmHgmlmin b 20 mmHgmllmjn c 200 mmHgmlmin d 25 mmHg e none of the above The primary hormone which stimulates Red Blood Cell production is produced in the a bone marrow b adrenal gland c kidney d posterior pituitary gland e none of the above Consider an individual who is spontaneously breathing a gas mixture containing 10 Oxygen 02 with the balance Nitrogen One would expect a The 02 saturation of Hemoglobin to fall to less than 10 of its normal value b 02 content of arterial blood to increase c increased ventilatory rate due to peripheral chemoreceptor stimulation d none of the above e a and c Central Chemoreceptors a Are located in the right atrium of the heart b Are Important in the regulation of arterial PCOZ c Regulate pulmonary ventilation by modifying the activity of the Medullary Respiratory Center d All of the above e b and 0 Consider the mammalian heart a the atria are thin walled noncontractile chambers which function solely as receptacles for venous return b Cardiac electrical activity passes directly from atrial myocardial cells to ventricular myocardial cells during activation of the heart c the ventricles are not supplied with a Specialized Conducting System and thus are activated more slowly than the atria d Cardiac metabolic activity is unaffected by the Autonomic Nervous System ANS e none of the above As a result of moderate exercise one would expect a pulmonary capillary recruitment b An increase the relative proportion of the alveolar capillary membrane being used for gas exchange c Arterial P02 to exceed the P02 of the inspired ambient air d all of the above e a and b In the normal lung FRC Functional Residual Capacity a is the lung volume produced by maximal expiration b Is the lung volume produced by normal inspiration c Is the pulmonary capillary blood volume in a normal resting individual d Is the lung volume produced by the normal recoil properties of the lung at passive equilibrium e None of the above In the normal kidney an uncompensated increase in Efferent Arteriolar vascular resistance would a increase the concentration of NaCl in the ultrafiltrate entering the Proximal Tubule b Decrease GFR c result in an increase in Glomerular filtration of plasma proteins d b and c e none of the above Under normal circumstances one would expect an increase in venous return to a lead to an increase in myocardial fiber length b lead to an increase in End Diastolic Ventricular Volume c Lead to an increase in Stroke Volume Svol d All of the above e a and b That phase of a cardiac muscle fiber s action potential associated with a marked increase in Ca Calcium conductance permeability necessary to cause excitation contraction coupling is a Phase Zero b Phase 1 c Phase 2 d Phase 3 e None of the above One would expect a marked decrease in ECFV Extracellular Fluid Volume to lead to a increased production of Angiotensin II b increased circulating concentration of Aldosterone c increased distal tubular Na sodium reabsorption d all of the above e a and b Which of the following isare actively reabsorbed in the kidney a Na b Glucose c H20 d all of the above e a and b


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