Last set of Notes for Exam 2
Last set of Notes for Exam 2 BIOL 243 001
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haley Johnson on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 243 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Lewis Bowman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 03/01/16
Notes 2/25/2016-3/1/2016 I. Articulation a. Factor: movement Structure Ligament Muscle tension II. Classification of Joints a. By Movement Synarthroses- no movement Amphiarthroses- slight amount of movement Diarthroses- a lot of movement b. By Structure Fibrous: ligament- dense regular; no joint cavity Cartilaginous: cartilage; no joint cavity Synovial: has a joint cavity, synovial membrane, synovial fluid III. Fibrous Joints a. Sutures- skull bones Fontanelle- soft spot present in skull bones of babies because their skull bones are not fully fused Synostosis- sutures are totally fused in adults b. Syndesmosis- held together by dense regular tissue Tibia & fibula- synarthroses Radius & ulna- amphiarthroses IV. Cartilaginous Joints a. Synchondroses- hyaline cartilage Temporary between epiphysis and diaphysis Costal cartilage b. Symphyses- fibrocartilage In between vertebrae (vertebral discs) Amphiarthroses Pelvic girdle V. Synovial Joints- all different types of movement allowed by synovial joints 1. Movements a. Flexion- decreases the angle between 2 bones (flex arm) i. Dorsiflexion- decrease angle between foot & leg ii. Plantar flexion- increase angle between foot & leg b. Extension- increases the angle between 2 bones (extend arm) i. Hyperextension- head can do it and be fine; hyperextending knee and elbow is bad c. Abduction- move away from midline (lift arm up) d. Adduction- move toward midline (put arm down) e. Circumduction- cone like movement (arm circles) f. Rotation- movement around an axis (twisting a doorknob) g. Elevation- elevation of mandible (close mouth) h. Depression- depression of mandible (open mouth) i. Supination- outward rotation (wrist up, radius & ulna are parallel) j. Pronation- inward rotation (wrist down, radius rotates over ulna) 2. Structure Articular cartilage- hyaline cartilage Articular capsule o Fibrous capsule- faces the outside o Synovial membrane- faces the inside, secretes synovial fluid Articular disc- made of fibrocartilage, in knees, acts as cushion Bursae- fluid filled sacs, located between skin & bone, tendon & bone, or ligament & bone; acts to reduce friction o Bursitis- bursae become inflamed, very painful, simple movements become very problematic Tendon sheaths- very similar structures to bursae, wrap around tendons o Tendonitis- inflammation of tendon VI. Types of Joints 0. Non-axial . Plane joint- between carpals, between tarsals, between metacarpals & carpals o Ligaments hold these bones together, determining the movement of plane joints 1. Uniaxial- movement in 1 plane . Hinge joint- elbow, knee, phalanges Extension & flexion a. Pivot joint- between 1st and 2nd vertebrae, proximal joint between radius & ulna Rotation around an axis 2. Biaxial- movement in 2 planes . Condyloid joint- radius & carpals, metacarpals & phalange Flexion & extension, abduction and adduction, circumduction (possible when you add F&E with A&A) a. Saddle joint- between carpal & metacarpal on thumb (only place in body 3. Multiaxial Many movements Found in shoulders & hips Also called ball and socket joint VII. Problems with Joints Arthritis- inflammation of a joint Osteoarthritis- the wear & tear arthritis, occurs as people just age and articular cartilage breaks down/degenerates, bone spurs can form, causing swelling of joint and pain Rheumatoid arthritis- thought to be an autoimmune disease, ones own body/antibodies will attack the synovial membrane, resulting in pannas formation in joint cavity If pannas substance calcifies, disfiguring fingers, no use for fingers Gouty arthritis- uric acid crystals are deposited in joints Usually uric acid is excreted in urine, but some people's diets affect uric acid concentration (lots of meat, or dysfunctional kidneys), very painful, can deposit in other parts of the body other than fingers, genetic Chapter 9 I. Muscle Functions Motion- movement, facial expressions Posture- standing erect, there is balanced contraction on both sides of the body Generation of head- energy conversion from kinetic energy to mechanical energy is never 100% efficient, so excess is released as heat Muscle has excellent blood supply- numerous capillaries and blood vessels through out muscles II. Functional Characteristics of Muscle Excitability- nerves stimulate excitement most of the time, chemicals are released by nerve to contract the muscle Contractility- when muscles are stimulated, they get shorter and fatter (contract) Extensibility- can stretch it, hold together, relax Elasticity- flexible, can go back to original shape III. Types of Muscle a. Skeletal muscle- moves the bones, contraction, extension i. Location Attached to bones Some are attached to the skin in our face, creating facial expression ii. Type of Nervous Stimulation Voluntary- we control it, however, not necessarily always consciously controlling every muscle (standing and swaying) Regulated my somatic nervous system iii. Structure Striated- dark regions separated by light regions--> contents must be highly organized Cells are long and multinucleated (more than one nucleus inside the same plasma membrane) Nuclei are near the edge and jammed up against the membrane b. Cardiac muscle- allows the heart to beat i. Location In the heart ii. Type of Nervous Stimulation Involuntary- we cannot consciously control the speed of our heart beat Regulated by autonomic nervous system iii. Structure Striated Mono/uni-nucleated (1 nucleus contained in 1 plasma membrane), sometimes di/bi- nucleated (2 nuclei contained in 1 plasma membrane) Nuclei are centrally located Cube like cells c. Smooth/Visceral muscle- move materials throughout body i. Location Surrounds hollow tubes i.e. intestines, blood vessels, etc. Arrector pili muscle (goose bumps) ii. Type of Nervous Stimulation Involuntary- we cannot consciously control its movement Regulated by autonomic nervous system iii. Structure Smooth, not striated Mono/uni-nucleated Cells taper to point Often in sheaths- multiple smooth muscle cells are joined together IV. Gross Anatomy . Skeletal Muscle Whole muscle (largest) o Epimysium surrounds whole muscle Fascicles/Fasciculi (middle)- groups of cells, pomegranate seed located on Slide 3, Figure 9.1 o Perimysium surrounds fascicles Muscle fibers (smallest)- individual muscle cells, pomegranate sections located on Slide 3, Figure 9.1 o Endomysium surrounds muscle fibers Connective Tissue Membrane- surrounds various parts Tendon- connects muscle to bone, outer surface is composed of dense CT a. Sarco's of Skeletal and Cardiac Muscles 0. Sarcoplasm- cytoplasm 1. Sarcolemma- plasma membrane 2. Sarcoplasmic Reticulum- endoplasmic reticulum of muscle cells o Blue on slide 8, Blue stuff on Slide 20 o Terminal cisterna (blue bands surrounding white band) o Store and release calcium, when muscles contract calcium is taken back up Transverse tubules- T tubules (white band) Continuous with sarcolemma Caves going from outside of mountain to inside (terminal cisterna) Direct communication via t tubule Triad o T tubule + 2 terminal cisternae b. Muscle Fibers of Skeletal Muscle . Myofibrils- rod like structures, filling up the cell o Anywhere from 10-100+ per muscle fiber 1. Thin filament Comprised of actin (similar to actin from cytoskeleton)- has myosin binding sites Has regulatory proteins Tropomyosin- block interaction of myosin head with actin in resting muscle; wrap around muscle Troponin- has 3 subunits/ chains of amino acids that are joined together to make a functional protein Tni- binds to actin TnT- binds to tropomyosin TnC- binds to calcium; calcium regulates contraction of muscle 2. Thick filament Comprised of protein known as myosin (rod like structures with heads and tails) Heads have crossbridges, can change shape, ATPase- can cleave ATP--> ADP+P energy Slide 5- purple structures are nuclei Striations- due to organization of various filaments in skeletal muscle o Dark- A band o Light- I band (eye not ell) o Slide 6 V. Basic Mechanism of Contraction Filaments DO NOT shorten Sliding filament model (Slide 2) Contract- z discs become closer together During muscle contraction, regulated by calcium, calcium is released, myosin bind and relax, pull z lines together, binding and tugging of thin filaments
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