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HIST 111, Week 7 Notes

by: Rachel Stein

HIST 111, Week 7 Notes History 111

Rachel Stein
GPA 3.8

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Miss some points on the last quiz? Make sure you review notes from the book and supplemental readings for chapter 8.
United States History to 1865
Nicole Maskiell
Class Notes
United States History
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Stein on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 111 at University of South Carolina taught by Nicole Maskiell in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see United States History to 1865 in History at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 03/01/16
Chapter  8:  The  Market  Revolution   Introduction   • Americans  focused  on  integrating  new  technologies  into  a  commercial  economy   • Steam  power  fueled  the  rise  of  American  industry  by  powering  mills  and   sparking  new  national  transportation     • More  farmers  grew  crops  for  profit     • A  new  middle  class  emerged   • Costs  of  the  revolution   o More  slaves  due  to  the  increase  in  textile  factories  and  their  need  for   cotton   o Also  sparked  devastating  depressions  and  a  larger  lower  class   ▯ Many  people  worked  for  low  wages  and  became  stuck  in  the  cycle   of  poverty   Early  Republic  Economic  Development     • Americans  produced  goods  for  sale  not  consumption     • There  was  new  troubling  trends:  class  conflict,  child  labor,  accelerated   immigration  and  the  expansion  of  slavery   • American  exports  rose  drastically  from  1790-­‐1807   o But  cost  a  lot  to  transport  internally     • In  1815  message  to  congress  President  Madison  stressed  the  necessity  of  new   infrastructure     • States  chartered  banks  and  European  capital  helped  to  build  American   infrastructure     • Economic  growth  proceeded  unevenly     • Spread  of  paper  currency  untethered  the  economy  from  physical  wealth     o There  were  many  counterfeit  bills     • “Transportation  Revolution”  opened  the  vast  lands  west  of  the  Appalachian   Mountains     • New  York  State  completed  the  Erie  Canal  in  1825,  a  350  mile  long  waterway  that   linked  the  Great  Lakes  with  the  Hudson  River   • Robert  Fulton  established  the  first  commercial  steam  boat  service  up  and  down   the  Hudson  River  in  NY  in  1807   • US’s  first  long  distance  rail  line  launched  from  Maryland  in  1827,  called   Baltimore  and  Ohio  Rail  Road  Company  (B&O)   • By  1860  there  was  over  30,000  miles  of  railroad  in  US     • Transportation  Revolution  led  to  a  Communication  Revolution     o By  1843  Sam  Morse  convinced  congress  to  lay  a  40  mile  telegraph  line     • 1815-­‐1850  there  was  an  explosion  of  patents  on  agricultural  technologies     • Geographic  center  of  the  nation  shifted  westward     • For  the  first  time  you  saw  business  corporations,  states  offered  privileges  of   incorporation  to  protect  fortunes  and  liabilities  of  entrepreneurs     o Often  distrusted  by  the  public     o Rights  of  corporations  were  upheld  in  supreme  court  case  Darmouth  vs   Woodward   The  Decline  of  Northern  Slavery  and  the  Rise  of  the  Cotton  Kingdom   • Factories  in  the  north  depended  on  plantations  in  the  south     • States  above  the  mason  Dixon  line  took  strides  to  abolish  slavery   o New  jersey  was  the  last   • Growing  black  communities  fought  for  civil  rights     o In  New  England  some  could  vote  and  send  their  children  to  public  school     o Most  northern  states  granted  them  property  rights  and  trial  by  jury     • Nationally  the  slave  population  continued  to  grow     o Invention  of  the  cotton  gin  led  to  a  mass  increase  in  southern  slavery     • While  the  US  ended  its  legal  participation  in  the  global  slave  trade  in  1808,  slave   traders  moved  1  million  slaves  from  the  upper  south  to  the  lower  south     Changes  in  Labor  Organization     • Cotton  production  led  to  industrialization  in  the  Northeast  and  Midwest     o Beginning  of  “piece  work”  where  a  person  only  completed  part  of  the   finished  product     o Early  as  1790s  this  method  was  starting  to  be  replaced     o Stole  industrial  designs  from  England     ▯ Francis  Cabot  Lowell  committed  whole  machines  to  memory     • Waltham-­‐Lowell  System  created  the  textile  mill  that  defined  American   industrialism  before  the  Civil  War     o Working  conditions  were  harsh  so  women  lobbied  for  better  working   hours  and  wages     • Loss  of  apprentice  system  for  the  use  of  factories   o There  was  less  of  an  attachment  between  employer  and  worker     o Led  to  a  division  between  classes     o Workers  were  freed  from  the  long  term  obligations  of  apprenticeship     • Commercial  economy  often  failed  in  its  promise  of  social  mobility     • Wage  workers  faced  low  wages,  long  hours,  and  dangerous  working  conditions   o Often  immigrants  and  poor  Americans   • 1825  a  group  of  journeymen  in  Boston  formed  a  Carpenters’  Union  to  protest   their  inability  “to  maintain  a  family  at  the  present  time,  with  the  wages  which   are  now  usually  given”     Changes  in  Gender  Roles  and  Family  Life     • Industrial  revolution  helped  to  redefine  what  it  meant  to  be  an  American  man   and  an  American  woman     • For  the  first  time  it  was  seen  as  elite  to  have  the  ability  for  a  woman  to  stay   home     • Idea  of  an  innocent  and  protected  childhood  was  only  for  upper  class  families     • However,  the  education  rich  children  received  set  them  up  for  future  economic   success     • Education  gave  young  women  the  tools  to  live  a  sophisticated,  gentile  life     o First  time  you  saw  woman  as  teachers     • Americans  wanted  a  sheltered  childhood  “romantic”  for  their  youth   • Americans  had  “separate  spheres”  for  men  and  women’s  roles     • Women  in  wealthy  families  became  important  consumers  of  cash  goods     • Wealthy  white  women  in  the  south  with  lots  of  slaves  didn’t  do  manual  labor   o Women  without  slaves  worked  in  the  fields  too     • Southerners  and  Northerners  increasingly  saw  their  way  of  life  as  incompatible     • While  economic  roles  were  changing  women  were  still  legally  dead  as  soon  as   they  were  married     o Some  states  made  divorce  legal  but  it  was  difficult,  expensive,  and  rare     • This  period  was  the  start  of  the  shift  from  “institutional”  to  “companionate”   marriage     The  Rise  of  Industrial  Labor  in  Antebellum  America   • More  than  5  million  immigrants  arrived  in  the  US  between  1820-­‐1860   • An  economic  slump  prompted  parliament  to  modernize  British  agriculture  by   revoking  common  land  rights  for  Irish  farmers     o Between  1820-­‐1840  over  250,000  immigrants  arrived  in  the  US     o Many  provided  unskilled  work     o There  was  chain  migration:  men  would  come  alone  then  send  money   home   • Most  Germans  did  not  stay  in  coastal  cities  but  rather  wanted  to  farm  and  trade   o St.  Lois,  Cincinnati,  and  Milwaukee  became  known  as  the  German   Triangle     o Most  were  catholic  and  jewish     o Many  Jewish  immigrants  didn’t  farm  but  rather  found  work  in  retail,   commerce,  and  artisanal  occupations  such  as  tailoring     • American  Party  (aka  the  “Know-­‐Nothing  Party”)  found  success  in  local  and  state   elections  throughout  the  north     o They  were  anti  catholic  and  anti  immigration     • Unions  did  not  become  legally  acceptable  until  1842  when  the  Massachusetts   Supreme  Judicial  Court  ruled  in  favor  of  a  union  organized  among  Boston  boot   makers   • 1840s  labor  activists  organized  to  limit  working  hours  and  protect  children  in   factories     • After  a  city-­‐wide  strike  in  Boston  in  1835,  the  Ten-­‐Hour  Movement  quickly   spread  to  other  major  cities   •  1842  child  labor  became  a  dominant  issue  in  the  American  labor  movement     o led  to  some  restrictions  on  age  and  types  of  jobs   o limited  hours  in  order  to  encourage  education       Chapter  8  Supplemental   James  Madison  asks  congress  to  support  internal  improvements,  1815   • After  the  war  of  1812  America  wanted  to  invest  in  infrastructure     o Canals,  roads,  and  a  national  seminary     • Called  for  a  tariff  on  foreign  goods  in  order  to  promote  domestic  goods     • The  Speeches,  Addresses,  and  Messages  of  the  Several  Presidents  of  the  United   States…  (Philadelphia:  1825)   A  traveler  describes  life  along  the  Erie  Canal,  1829   • Basil  Hall,  from  Britain  traveled  along  the  Erie  Canal  and  took  notes   o Described  life  in  Rochester  NY  and  other  small  towns  in  upstate  NY  that   grew  b/c  of  the  erie  canal   • Rochester  is  a  few  miles  from  the  southern  shore  of  lake  Ontario     • Improvement  in  America  meant  more  forests  cleared  and  more  infrastructure   built     • He  is  shocked  that  men  do  not  seem  to  care  about  how  they  dress   • Population  is  people  from  Mass,  Conn,  RI,  Maine,  New  Hampshire,  and  Vermont   o Also  some  from  other  countries     • Travels  in  North  America,  in  the  year  1827  and  1828   Blacksmith  apprentice  contract,  1836   • Factories  and  production  of  the  market  revolution  killed  the  business  practice  of   artisans     • Needed  consent  from  parent   Harriet  H.  Robinson  remembers  a  mill  workers’  strike,  1863   • Social  upheaval  of  Market  Revolution  created  new  tensions  between  rich  and   poor     • Lowell,  Mass  was  the  site  of  first  American  factory   • Woman  reminisces  about  a  strike  at  the  textile  mill  in  October  1836   • Strike  was  b/c  they  were  trying  to  cut  wages     • 12-­‐1500  girls  showed  up     • Many  of  the  ringleaders  were  punished  and  the  strike  was  overall  unsuccessful     Alexis  de  Toqueville,  “How  Americans  Understand  the  Equality  of  the  Sexes,”  1840   • French  political  thinker  traveled  throughout  the  US  to  gather  research  for  his   book  “Democracy  in  America”   • Describes  the  separation  of  the  sexes  between  work  and  home     o this  was  what  he  used  to  justify  the  denial  of  rights  to  women   • Democracy  in  America    


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