HIST 111, Week 7 Notes
HIST 111, Week 7 Notes History 111
Popular in United States History to 1865
Popular in History
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Stein on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 111 at University of South Carolina taught by Nicole Maskiell in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see United States History to 1865 in History at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 03/01/16
Chapter 8: The Market Revolution Introduction • Americans focused on integrating new technologies into a commercial economy • Steam power fueled the rise of American industry by powering mills and sparking new national transportation • More farmers grew crops for profit • A new middle class emerged • Costs of the revolution o More slaves due to the increase in textile factories and their need for cotton o Also sparked devastating depressions and a larger lower class ▯ Many people worked for low wages and became stuck in the cycle of poverty Early Republic Economic Development • Americans produced goods for sale not consumption • There was new troubling trends: class conflict, child labor, accelerated immigration and the expansion of slavery • American exports rose drastically from 1790-‐1807 o But cost a lot to transport internally • In 1815 message to congress President Madison stressed the necessity of new infrastructure • States chartered banks and European capital helped to build American infrastructure • Economic growth proceeded unevenly • Spread of paper currency untethered the economy from physical wealth o There were many counterfeit bills • “Transportation Revolution” opened the vast lands west of the Appalachian Mountains • New York State completed the Erie Canal in 1825, a 350 mile long waterway that linked the Great Lakes with the Hudson River • Robert Fulton established the first commercial steam boat service up and down the Hudson River in NY in 1807 • US’s first long distance rail line launched from Maryland in 1827, called Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road Company (B&O) • By 1860 there was over 30,000 miles of railroad in US • Transportation Revolution led to a Communication Revolution o By 1843 Sam Morse convinced congress to lay a 40 mile telegraph line • 1815-‐1850 there was an explosion of patents on agricultural technologies • Geographic center of the nation shifted westward • For the first time you saw business corporations, states offered privileges of incorporation to protect fortunes and liabilities of entrepreneurs o Often distrusted by the public o Rights of corporations were upheld in supreme court case Darmouth vs Woodward The Decline of Northern Slavery and the Rise of the Cotton Kingdom • Factories in the north depended on plantations in the south • States above the mason Dixon line took strides to abolish slavery o New jersey was the last • Growing black communities fought for civil rights o In New England some could vote and send their children to public school o Most northern states granted them property rights and trial by jury • Nationally the slave population continued to grow o Invention of the cotton gin led to a mass increase in southern slavery • While the US ended its legal participation in the global slave trade in 1808, slave traders moved 1 million slaves from the upper south to the lower south Changes in Labor Organization • Cotton production led to industrialization in the Northeast and Midwest o Beginning of “piece work” where a person only completed part of the finished product o Early as 1790s this method was starting to be replaced o Stole industrial designs from England ▯ Francis Cabot Lowell committed whole machines to memory • Waltham-‐Lowell System created the textile mill that defined American industrialism before the Civil War o Working conditions were harsh so women lobbied for better working hours and wages • Loss of apprentice system for the use of factories o There was less of an attachment between employer and worker o Led to a division between classes o Workers were freed from the long term obligations of apprenticeship • Commercial economy often failed in its promise of social mobility • Wage workers faced low wages, long hours, and dangerous working conditions o Often immigrants and poor Americans • 1825 a group of journeymen in Boston formed a Carpenters’ Union to protest their inability “to maintain a family at the present time, with the wages which are now usually given” Changes in Gender Roles and Family Life • Industrial revolution helped to redefine what it meant to be an American man and an American woman • For the first time it was seen as elite to have the ability for a woman to stay home • Idea of an innocent and protected childhood was only for upper class families • However, the education rich children received set them up for future economic success • Education gave young women the tools to live a sophisticated, gentile life o First time you saw woman as teachers • Americans wanted a sheltered childhood “romantic” for their youth • Americans had “separate spheres” for men and women’s roles • Women in wealthy families became important consumers of cash goods • Wealthy white women in the south with lots of slaves didn’t do manual labor o Women without slaves worked in the fields too • Southerners and Northerners increasingly saw their way of life as incompatible • While economic roles were changing women were still legally dead as soon as they were married o Some states made divorce legal but it was difficult, expensive, and rare • This period was the start of the shift from “institutional” to “companionate” marriage The Rise of Industrial Labor in Antebellum America • More than 5 million immigrants arrived in the US between 1820-‐1860 • An economic slump prompted parliament to modernize British agriculture by revoking common land rights for Irish farmers o Between 1820-‐1840 over 250,000 immigrants arrived in the US o Many provided unskilled work o There was chain migration: men would come alone then send money home • Most Germans did not stay in coastal cities but rather wanted to farm and trade o St. Lois, Cincinnati, and Milwaukee became known as the German Triangle o Most were catholic and jewish o Many Jewish immigrants didn’t farm but rather found work in retail, commerce, and artisanal occupations such as tailoring • American Party (aka the “Know-‐Nothing Party”) found success in local and state elections throughout the north o They were anti catholic and anti immigration • Unions did not become legally acceptable until 1842 when the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court ruled in favor of a union organized among Boston boot makers • 1840s labor activists organized to limit working hours and protect children in factories • After a city-‐wide strike in Boston in 1835, the Ten-‐Hour Movement quickly spread to other major cities • 1842 child labor became a dominant issue in the American labor movement o led to some restrictions on age and types of jobs o limited hours in order to encourage education Chapter 8 Supplemental James Madison asks congress to support internal improvements, 1815 • After the war of 1812 America wanted to invest in infrastructure o Canals, roads, and a national seminary • Called for a tariff on foreign goods in order to promote domestic goods • The Speeches, Addresses, and Messages of the Several Presidents of the United States… (Philadelphia: 1825) A traveler describes life along the Erie Canal, 1829 • Basil Hall, from Britain traveled along the Erie Canal and took notes o Described life in Rochester NY and other small towns in upstate NY that grew b/c of the erie canal • Rochester is a few miles from the southern shore of lake Ontario • Improvement in America meant more forests cleared and more infrastructure built • He is shocked that men do not seem to care about how they dress • Population is people from Mass, Conn, RI, Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont o Also some from other countries • Travels in North America, in the year 1827 and 1828 Blacksmith apprentice contract, 1836 • Factories and production of the market revolution killed the business practice of artisans • Needed consent from parent Harriet H. Robinson remembers a mill workers’ strike, 1863 • Social upheaval of Market Revolution created new tensions between rich and poor • Lowell, Mass was the site of first American factory • Woman reminisces about a strike at the textile mill in October 1836 • Strike was b/c they were trying to cut wages • 12-‐1500 girls showed up • Many of the ringleaders were punished and the strike was overall unsuccessful Alexis de Toqueville, “How Americans Understand the Equality of the Sexes,” 1840 • French political thinker traveled throughout the US to gather research for his book “Democracy in America” • Describes the separation of the sexes between work and home o this was what he used to justify the denial of rights to women • Democracy in America
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